Tableau interview Questions and Answers

1.Can parameters have drop down list________.
a) yes
b) no
c) May be
d) Never

  • Ans :- a

2.Sets can be created on________
a) Dimensions

  • Ans:- a
    Explanation: In dimension field click on customer name again click on Create then you can see the option set

3.what is normal filter ?
a) Is used to filter the data.
b) Is used to view the filtering.
c) Is used to restrict the data.
d) Is used to hide the data.

  • Ans:- c

Normal filter is we can The normal filters in Tableau are independent of each other. It means each of the filter reads all the rows from the source data and creates its own result. many data types are available in tableau?

  • Ans:- b

5.what are the components of a dashboard?
a) vertical
c) Image Extract
d) all of the above

  • Ans:- d
    Explanation: The components of a dashboard is vertical,horizontal,image extract.



6.How do you identify a continuous field in Tableau?
a) It is identified by a blue pill in the visualization.
b) It is identified by a green pill in a visualization.
c) It is preceded by a # symbol in the data window.
d) When added to the visualization, it produces distinct values.

  • Ans:- b
    Explanation: It is identified by a green pill in a visualization

7.How to get current date in tableau?
a)DATEADD (date_part, increment, date)
b) NOW()
c)Day (date)
d) DAY (Time)

  • Ans:- b
    Explanation:By using NOW() function we can get the current date.

8.What are The MAP Types in tableau?
a)symbol Maps
b) filled Maps
c)both a & b

  • Ans:- c
    Explanation:There are 2 map types available in Tableau i.e symbol map and filled map

9.For creating variable size bins we use _____________.
a) Sets
b) Groups
c) Edit[bins]
d) Table Calculations

  • Ans:- c

10.The icon associated with the field that has been grouped is a ______________.
a) Paper Clip
b) Set
c) Hash
d) Equal To

  • Ans:- a

11.The Highlighting action can be disabled for the entire workbook.
a) True
b) False

  • Ans:- a

12.Tableau displays measures over time as a ____________.
a) Bar
b) Line
c) Histogram
d) Scatter Plots

  • Ans:- a

13.what is groups?
a) category purpose
b) calculation field not possible in group
c) grouping purpose based on the some condition
d) calculation field.

  • Ans:- a

14.Does Tableau integrate with Hadoop/Hive Server?
a) HiveServer
b) Hadoop
c) both a&b
d) None

  • Ans:- both a&b

15.what is groups?
a) category purpose
b) calculation field not possible in group
c) grouping purpose based on the some condition

  • Ans:- a

16.What is the purpose of using page shelf?
a) The pages shelf lets you break a view into a series of pages so you can better analyze how a specific field affects the rest of the data in a view.
b) Helps to set up the pages no’s
c) Helps you in arranging the data.

  • Ans:- a

17.Dimensions typically holds which type of fields
a)numerical data
b) discrete qualitative data

  • Ans:- b

18.Dates are typically considered as
a) dimensions
b) measures

  • Ans:- a

19.Which of the below mentioned chart types always have bars sorted in descending order?
a) Gantt Chart
b)Pareto Chart
c)Combo Chart
d)Horizontal Bars

  • Ans:- b

20.Which of the following charts need binned data as mandatory?
a) Pie Chart
b)Box Plot
d)Bullet Graphs

  • Ans:- c

21.If a field is represented in blue background, this denotes the field is
a) continuous

  • Ans:- b

22.what are the important features of file menu?
a).export as version
b) print to pdf
c)export packaged workbook option
d) All of the above

  • Ans:- d

23.What are menu commands?
a) Format, Server, Help
b) File, Data, Worksheet, Dashboard
c) Analysis, Maps, Story
d) All of the above

  • Ans:- d

24.what is embedded data source in Tableau
a) associated with a workbook
b)independent of any workbook
c)entire data source
d) high-level security for the data

  • Ans:- a

25.what are important features in dashboard menu?
a) Actions
b) URL
c) Export image option
d) All of the above

  • Ans:- d

26.Is there a limit on storage space for the data on Tableau Public?
a) No
b) Yes

  • Ans:- b

27.what is mobile in tableau
a) High-resolutions thumbnails
b) High – level security for the data
c) Taking screenshot for the data
d) All of the data

  • Ans:- d

28.what is fact table?
a)The measurements, metrics or facts of a business process. It is located at the centre of a star schema or a snowflake schema surrounded by dimension tables.
b) SQL term that refers to combining two data sources into a single data source.
C) Tableau term that refers to combining two data

29.performance testing is available in tableau?

  • Ans:- a

30.can we combine database and flat file data in Tableau ?

  • Ans:- a much percent of the data Boxes indicate?

  • Ans:- b

32.Tableau Public is made for________
a)collaboration for any organization
b)made for individual use
c)anyone to publish interactive data online
d)let you read files saved in Tableau Desktop

  • Ans:- c does Tableau works?
d)All of the above

  • Ans:- d

34.what is joining in tableau___________
a) Various connection information
b)entire data source
c)combinig data from the same source
d)accessible from anywhere

  • Ans:- c

35.what are the characterstics to distinguish data source____
a) connection Type ,live or live extract
b) Icon/Name
c)connects to
d) All of the above

  • Ans:- d

36.Tableau online is made for________
a)collaboration for any organization
b)Bussiness Intelligence in the cloud
c)made for individual use
d)Read files saved in Tableau Desktop

  • Ans:- b

37.How to connect data source in Tableau
a) you can connect to any supported data source with the connect to data dailog box
b) To build view of your data you must first connect Tableau to a data source.
c) select Data>connect to Data or press clt+D on your keyboard.You can also select to Data option on the start page.
d) All of the above

  • Ans:- d

38.what are the important features of story menu?
a)Run Update
c)Export image option
d)All of the above

  • Ans:- d

39.what is story menu________
a) is used to create a new story which has many sheets or dashboards with related data.
b) is used for applying the various formatting options to enhance the look and feel of the dashboards created.
c) is used for building map views in Tableau.
d) is used for analyzing the data present in the sheet

  • Ans:- a

40.what is dashboard___
a)Represents the frequencies of values of a variable bucketed into ranges
b) a consolidated display of many worksheets and related information in a single place

  • Ans:- b

41.what is work sheet menu________
a) Is used to create new worksheet along with various display features like showing the title and captions etc
b) Is used to create a new story which has many sheets
c) Is used to create new dashboard along with various display features like showing the title and exporting image etc

  • Ans:- a

42.what are the data connection files
a) Various connection information
b) Independent of any workbook
c) High-level security for the data
d) Associated with a workbook

  • Ans:- a

43.what is fact table?
a)The measurements, metrics or facts of a business process. It is located at the centre of a star schema or a snowflake schema surrounded by dimension tables.
b) SQL term that refers to combining two data sources into a single data source.
C) Tableau term that refers to combining two data s

  • Ans:- a

44.can we combine database and flat file data in Tableau ?

  • Ans:- a much percent of the data Boxes indicate?

  • Ans:- b

46.what are the published data sources in tableau_____
a) associated with a workbook
b) independent of any workbook
c)high level security for the data

  • Ans:- b

47.what is heat maps
a) Heat maps to compare categorical data using color
b)packed bubble charts to display data in a cluster circles.

  • Ans:- a

48.What is crosstab?
a)Map Menu
b)string as date
c)Quick Filters
d)text table view

  • Ans:- d



49.Does tableau can connect to all the popular data sources which are widely use?

  • Ans:- d

50.Tableau’s native connectors can connect to the how many types of data sources________
a)other sources using ODBC
b)cloud systems
c)File system’s ,Relational systems
d)All of the above

  • Ans:- d

51.What is format pane in tableau ?
a) A part of the view that visually represents one are more rows in a data source .
b) A syntax that supports aggregation at dimensionalities other than the view level.
c) A pane that contains formatting settings that control the entire worksheet ,as well as individual fields in the view. When open, the format pane appears on the left side of the workbook.
d) A card to the left of the view where you can drag fields to control mark properties such as type color size,shape.

52.What is data source page
a) To publish the workbook in the server to be used by others
b) Display the fields of the data sources to which Tableau is connected.
c) To publish the source data used in work book.
d) A page where you can set up your data source.

  • Ans:- d

53.What is extract in Tableau
a) A saved subset of a data source that you can use to improve performance and analyse offline.
b) To publish the source data used in the workbook
c) Display the fields of the data sources to which tableau is connected.
d) To publish the sources data used in the workbook

  • Ans:- a

54.What is connect in Tableau_______
a)you can write serialization for leaf nodes, and then for parent nodes.
b)Tableau is designed to allow business people with no technical training to analyze their data efficiently.
c) connect Tableau to any database that you want to analyze.
d) Tableau allows anyone to easily connect to data ,then visualize and create interactive shares dashboards.

  • Ans:- c

55.What is trend line in tableau
a) Shows the progress of the value of a task or over period of time.
b) Predicting the future value of measure .
c) Used to predict the continuation of certain trend of a also helps to identify the correlation between two variables by observing the trend in both of them simultaneously.
d) A much advanced direct precise and ordered way of viewing large volume of data

  • Ans:- c

56.what is the meaning of paste sheets option in file menu
a) To set the language to be used in the report.
b) To see all the types of connections available and choose from it
c)To paste a sheet into the current workbook which is copied from another workbook
d) It is used to create a packaged workbook which will be shared with other users

  • Ans:- c to create a column alias in Tableau
a) By using NOW() function
b)In the menu Data -->New connection drag the table to the data pane to view data
c)use text tables to display the numbers associated with dimension members
d)In the menu Data -->New connection open the table meta data and click on the column name to create alias

  • Ans:- d

58.what is the meaning of Refresh All Extracts option in data menu__
a)to see the summary of the data used in the worksheet like count etc
b) to show the tooltip when hovering above various data fields
c)to refresh the data from source
d) used to define the fields in more than one data source for linking

  • Ans:- c

59.what are the important features in analysis menu______
a) Trend Lines
b)create and calculated field option
c)Trend Line
d) All of the above

60.what is the meaning of workbook Local option in file Menu?
a) to see all the types of connections available and choose from it
b) to paste sheet into the current workbook.
c) to create a packaged workbook which will be shared with other users
d) to set the language to be used in the report

  • Ans:- d

61.what is the meaning of Export Packaged Workbook option in file Menu?
a) to see all the types of connections available and choose from it
b) to paste sheet into the current workbook.
c) to create a packaged workbook which will be shared with other users
d) to set the language to be used in the report

  • Ans:- c

62.what is STRING in Tableau?
a) any sequence of one or more characters
b) any sequence of zero or more characters
c)any sequence of more than three characters
d) None of the above

  • Ans:- b

63.what is the workbook theme option in format menu_____
a)to apply theme to the entire workbook
b) to apply borders to fields displayed in the report
c)customize the size of the cells displaying the data
d) to assign a Title and caption to the reports

64.what is the Borders option in format menu
a)To customize the size of the cells displaying the data
b)to apply theme to the entire workbook
c)to apply borders to fields displayed in the report
d) assign a title and caption to the reports

  • Ans:- c

65.what is the create user filters in server menu?
a) to create filters on the worksheet to be applied by various users when the access the report
b)publish the source data used in the workbook
c)publish the workbook in the server to be used by others
d) Quick Filters

66.what is Run update option in dashboard menu?
a)used to export an image of the Dashboard
b) Is used to set the layout in terms of colours and sections of the dashboard
c)used to update the worksheet data or filters
d) link the dashboards sheets to external URLS

  • Ans:- b

67.what is tooltip option in worksheet menu
a)to show the tooltip when hovering above various data fields
b) to refresh the data from source
c) it is used to define the fields in more than one data source for linking
d) to see the summary of the data used in worksheet

  • Ans:- a

68.what are parameters in Tableau _____
a) Filter by according to the list
b) Filter each worksheet on a dashboard
c) Insert their values
d)none of the above

  • Ans:- c

69.what are Filters in Tableau
a) Filter each worksheet on a dashboard
b) Filter by according to the list
c) Insert their values
d)none of the above

  • Ans:- b

70.what is the bookmark in Tableau
a) to pulish the workbook in the server to be used by others
b)is used to publish the source data used in workbook
c).tbm file in the Bookmarks folder in the Tableau repository that contains a single worksheet
d)a user defined grouping of measures in the data source.

  • Ans:- b many types of LOD expressions available in Tableau
a) 4

  • Ans:- c
    Explanation: There are 3 types of LOD’S thier 1.FIXED LOD,2INCLUDE LOD,3.EXCLUDE LOD many types of sorting options are there in Tableau

  • Ans:- a
    Explanation: Manual sorting and adhoc sorting to improve performance in Tableau
a) if you set a lot of filters or have a large data source,the queries can be slow .you can set one or more context filters to improve performance.
b)Filter dimensions are the filters applied on the dimension fields
c)Filter dates are the filters applied on the date fields
d)Filter Measures are the filters applied on the measure fields

  • Ans:- a

74.what are the possible reasons for slow performance in Tableau
a)Test with another Tool
b) Use native drivers
c) Both A and B
d) None of the above

  • Ans:- c

75.what are the types of sortings in Tableau
a)Manual sorting
b) computed sorting
c) A and B
d) None of the above

  • Ans:- c many dimension fields we can combine to create one calculated field

  • Ans:- a

77.what is INCLUDE LOD in Tableau?
a)levels of detail expressions subtract dimensions from the view level of detail
b)This expressions compute values using the specified dimensions without reference to any other dimensions in the view
c)This level of detail expressions compute values using the specified dimensions in addition to whatever dimensions are in the view
d)none of the above

  • Ans:- c

78.we can search for names of fields by using which option
a) cloud systems
b) multiple
c)up and down
d)search box

  • Ans:- d

79.what is the edit relationship option in data menu________
a) It is used to define the fields in more than one data source for linking
b)to refresh the data from source
c)to show the tooltip when hovering above various data fields
d)to see the summary of the data used in the worksheet

80.what is Actions option in dashboard menu
a) used to set layout in terms of colours and sections of the dashboard
b) to update the worksheet data or filters used
c)is used to export image of the dashboard
d) to link the dashboard sheet to external URLS or other sheets.

  • Ans:- d

81.what is embedded data source in Tableau
a) associated with a workbook
b)independent of any workbook
c)entire data source
d) high-level security for the data

  • Ans:- a


Data Science Interview Questions and Answers

1.What is logistic regression? Or State an example when you have used logistic regression recently?

  • Ans :- Logistic Regression often referred as logit model is a technique to predict the binary outcome from a linear combination of predictor variables. For example, if you want to predict whether a particular political leader will win the election or not. In this case, the outcome of prediction is binary i.e. 0 or 1 (Win/Lose). The predictor variables here would be the amount of money spent for election campaigning of a particular candidate, the amount of time spent in campaigning, etc.

2.What are Recommender Systems?

  • Ans :- A subclass of information filtering systems that are meant to predict the preferences or ratings that a user would give to a product. Recommender systems are widely used in movies, news, research articles, products, social tags, music, etc.

3.Why data cleaning plays a vital role in analysis?

  • Ans :- Cleaning data from multiple sources to transform it into a format that data analysts or data scientists can work with is a cumbersome process because - as the number of data sources increases, the time take to clean the data increases exponentially due to the number of sources and the volume of data generated in these sources. It might take up to 80% of the time for just cleaning data making it a critical part of analysis task.

4.Differentiate between univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis.

  • Ans :- These are descriptive statistical analysis techniques which can be differentiated based on the number of variables involved at a given point of time. For example, the pie charts of sales based on territory involve only one variable and can be referred to as univariate analysis. If the analysis attempts to understand the difference between 2 variables at time as in a scatterplot, then it is referred to as bivariate analysis. For example, analysing the volume of sale and a spending can be considered as an example of bivariate analysis. Analysis that deals with the study of more than two variables to understand the effect of variables on the responses is referred to as multivariate analysis.

5.What is Machine Learning?

  • Ans :- Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning has given us self-driving cars, practical speech recognition, effective web search, and a vastly improved understanding of the human genome. It is so widespread that unknowingly we use it many a times in our daily life.

6.What is Supervised Machine Learning?

  • Ans :- Supervised Machine Learning will be employed for the problem statements where in output variable (Nominal) of interest can be either classified or predicted. Examples: KNN, Naive Bayes, SVM, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Neural Network

7.What is Unsupervised Machine Learning?

  • Ans :- In this category of Machine Learning, there won’t be any output variable to be either predicted or classified. Instead the algorithm understands the patterns in the data. Examples: Segmentation, PCA, SVD, Market Basket Analysis, Recommender Systems.

8.What is Classification Modeling?

  • Ans :- Classification Models are employed when the observations have to be classified in categories and not predicted. Examples being Cancerous and Non-cancerous tumor (2 categories), Bus, Rail, Car, Carpool (>2 categories)

9.Examples of Unsupervised Machine Learning

  • Ans:-Segmentation, PCA, SVD, Market Basket Analysis, Recommender Systems

10.Examples of Supervised Machine Learning

  • Ans:-KNN, Naive Bayes, SVM, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Neural Network

11.Why is hierarchial clustering called as Agglomerative clustering?

  • Ans:-It is because of bottom up approach, where initially each observation is considered to be a single cluster and gradually based on the distance measure inidividual clusters will be paired and finally merged as one

12.When can you say that resultant clusters are good?

  • Ans:-When the clusters are as much heterogenous as possible and when the observations within each cluster are as much homogeenous as possible.

13.In which domains can we employ clustering?

  • Ans:-None of your data science topics are domain specific. They can be employed in any domain, provided data is available.

14.Example of clustering?

  • Ans:-Using variables like income, education, profession, age, number of children, etc you come with different clusters and each cluster has people with similar socio-economic criteria

15.Is normalization of data required before applying clustering?

  • Ans:-It would be better if we employ clustering on normalized data as you will get different results for with and without normalization

16.What is the range of Z transformed variable?

  • Ans:-Theoretically it will be between - infinity to + inifinity but normally you have values between -3 to +3

17.What is the range of variable when ((x - min(X))/(max(X) - min(X)) normalization technique is employed?

  • Ans:-0 to 1 is the range for this normalizaion technique

18.What does summary() command gives?

  • Ans:-summary() command gives the distribution for numerical variables and proportion of observations for factor variables

19.What is str() command why is it required to run it?

  • Ans:-str() command gives dimensions for your data drame. In addition to this it gives, class of the dataset & class of every variable

20.Packages to read excel files in R?

  • Ans:-readxl or xlsx packages can be used to read excel files in R

21.What are linkages in hierarchical clustering?

  • Ans:-Linkage is the criteria based on which distances between two clusters is computed. Single, Complete, Average are few of the examples for linkages Single - The distance between two clusters is defined as the shortest distance between two points in each cluster. Complete - The distance between two clusters is defined as the longest distance between two points in each cluster. Average - the distance between two clusters is defined as the average distance between each point in one cluster to every point in the other cluster.

22.How do we decide upon the number of clusters in hierarchial clustering?

  • Ans:-In Hierarchial Clustering number of clusters will be decided only after looking at the dendrogram.

23.How to interpret clusterig output?

  • Ans:-After computing optimal clusters, aggregate measure like mean has to be computed on all variables and then resultant values for all the variables have to be interpreted among the clusters

24.What is the use of set.seed() function ?

  • Ans:-set.seed() function is to reproduce same results if the code is re-run again. Any number can be given within the paranthesis

25.Why is KNN called as non-parametric algorithm?

  • Ans:-KNN makes no assumptions about the underlying data (unlike other algorithms, eg. Linear Regression)

26.Why is KNN called as Lazy Algorithm?

  • Ans:-There is no or minimal training phase because of which training phase is pretty fast. Here the training data is used during the testing phase.

27.How do we choose the value of K in KNN algorithm?

  • Ans:-K value can be selected using sqrt(no. of obs/2), kselection package, scree plot, k fold cross validation

28.Function in R to employ KNN?

  • Ans:-knn() can be used from the class package

29.What is the r function to know the number of observations for the levels of a variable?`

  • Ans:-table() is the r function. It can be also be employed on any variable but it makes sense to employ on a factor variable.

30.What is the r function to know the persentae of observations for the levels of a variable?`

  • Ans:-prop.table() employed on top of table() function i.e., prop.table(table()) is the r function. It can be also be employed on any variable but it makes sense to employ on a factor variable.

31.Difference between lapply & sapply function?

  • Ans:-lapply returns the ouput as a list whereas sapply returns the ouput as a vector, matrix or array.

32.Can we represent the output of a classifer having more than two levels using a confusion matrix?

  • Ans:-We cannot use confusion matix when we have more than two levels in the output variable. Instead, we can use crosstable() function from gmodels package

33.What is Probability?

  • Ans:-Probability is given by Number of interested events/Total number of events

34.What is Joint probability?

  • Ans:-It is the probability of two events occuring at the same time. Classical example is probability of an email being spam wih the word lottery in it.Here the events are email being spam and email having the word lottery

35.What is the function to perform simple random sampling?

  • Ans:-sample() is the function in R to employ Simple Random Sampling

36.Functions to find row & column count in R?

  • Ans:-dim() function or nrow() & col() can be used to find row & column count

37.What is the function to compute accuracy of a classifier?

  • Ans:-mean() function can be used to compute the accuracy. Within paranthesis actual labels have to compared with predicted labels

38.What is Bayes' Theorem?

  • Ans:-Bayes’ Theorem finds the probability of an event occurring given the probability of another event that has already occurred. Mathematically it is given as P(A|B) = [P(B|A)P(A)]/P(B) where A & B are events. P(A|B) called as Posterior Probability, is the probability of event A(response) given that B(independent) has already occured. P(B|A) is the likelihood of the training data i.e., probability of event B(indpendent) given that A(response) has already occured. P(A) is the probability of the response variable and P(B) is the probability of the training data or evidence.

39.What is the assumption of Naive Bayes Classifier?

  • Ans:-The fundamental assumption is that each indepedent variable independently and equally contributes to the outcome.

40.What is SVM?

  • Ans:-Here we plot each data point in n-dimensional space with the value of each dimension being the value of a particular coordinate. Then, we perform classification by finding the hyper-plane that differentiate the classes very well

41.What are the tuning parameters of SVM?

  • Ans:-Kernel, Regularization, Gamma and Margin are the tuning paramers of SVM

42.Explain Kernel in SVM?

  • Ans:-Kernel tricks are nothing but the transformations applied on input variables which separate non-separable data to separable data. There are 9 different kernel tricks. Examples are Linear, RBF, Polynomial, etc.

43.Is there a need to convert categorical variables into numeric in SVM? If yes, explain.

  • Ans:-All the categorical variables have to be converted to numeric by creating dummy variables, as all the data points have to be plotted on n dimensional space, in addition to this we have tuning paramteters like Kernel, Regularization, Gamma & Margin which are mathematical computations that require numeric variables. This is an assumpton of SVM.

44.What is Regularization in SVM?

  • Ans:-The value of Regularization parameter tells the training model as to how much it can avoid misclassifying each training observation.

45.What is Gamma parameter in SVM?

  • Ans:-Gamma is the kernel coefficient in the kernel tricks RBF, Polynomial, & Sigmoid. Higher values of Gamma will make the model more complex and overfits the model.

46.What do you mean by Margin in SVM?

  • Ans:-Margin is the separation line to the closest class datapoints. Larger the margin width, better is the classification done. But before even achieving maximum margin, objective of te algorithm is to correctly classify datapoints.

47.What is the SVM package used for SVM in R?

  • Ans:-kernlab is the package used in R for implementing SVM in R

48.What is the function name to implement SVM in R?

  • Ans:-ksvm is the function in R to implement SVM in R

49.What is a decision tree?

  • Ans:-Decision Tree is a superised machine learning algorithm used for classification and regression analysis. It is a tree-like structure in which internal node represents test on an attribute, each branch represents outcome of test and each leafe node represents class label.

50.What are rules in decision tree?

  • Ans:-A path from root node to leaf node represents classification rules

51.Explain different types of nodes in nodes in decision tree and how are they selected.

  • Ans:-We have Root Node, Internal Node, Leaf Node in a decision tree. Decision Tree starts at the Root Node, this is the first node of the decision tree. Data set is split based on Root Node, again nodes are selected to further split the already splitted data. This process of splitting the data goes on till we get leaf nodes, which are nothing but the classification labels. The process of selecting Root Nodes and Internal Nodes is done using the statistical measure called as Gain

52.What do you mean by impurity in Decision Tree?

  • Ans:-We say a data set is pure or homoegenous if all of it's class labels is the same and impure or hetergenous if the class labels are different. Entropy or Gini Index or Classification Error can be used to measure impurity of the data set.

53.What is Pruning in Decision Tree?

  • Ans:-The process of removal of sub nodes which contribute less power to the decision tree model is called as Pruning.

54.What is the advantage of Pruning?

  • Ans:-Pruning reduces the complexity of the model which in turn reduces overfitting problem of Decision Tree. There are two strategies in Pruning. Propruning - discard unreliable parts from the fully grown tree, Prepruning - stop growing a branch when the information becomes unreliable. Postpruning is the preferred one.

55.What is the difference between Entropy and Information Gain?

  • Ans:-Entropy is a probabilistic measure of uncertainity or impurity whereas Information Gain is the reduction of this uncertainity measure.

56.Explain the expression of Gain (of any column)?

  • Ans:-Gain for any column is calculated by differencing Information Gain of a dataset with respect to a variable from the Information Gain of the entire dataset i.e., Gain(Age) = Info(D) - Info(D wrt Age)

57.What is the package required to implement Decision Tree in R?

  • Ans:-C50 and tree packages can be used to implement a decision tree algorithm in R.

58.What is Random Forest?

  • Ans:-Random Forest is an Ensemble Classifer. As opposed to building a single decision tree, random forest builds many decision trees and combines the output of all the decision trees to give a stable output.

59.How does Random Forest adds randomness and build a better model?

  • Ans:-Instead of searching for the most important feature while splitting a node, it searches for the best feature among a random subset of features. This results in a wide diversity that generally results in a better model. Additional randomness can be added by using random thresholds for each feature rather than searching for the best possible thresholds (like a normal decision tree does).

60.What is the R package to employ Random Forest in R?

  • Ans:-randomForest is the package to employ Random Forest in R

61.What are the pros of using Random Forest?

  • Ans:- Random Forest won't overfit the model, it is unexcelled in reliable accuracy, works very well on large data sets, can handle thousands of input variables without deletion, outputs significance of input variables, handles outliers and missing values very well

62.What is the limitation of Random Forest?

  • Ans:- The main limitation of Random Forest is that a large number of trees can make the algorithm to slow and ineffective for real-time predictions. In most real-world applications the random forest algorithm is fast enough, but there can certainly be situations where run-time performance is important and other approaches would be preferred.

63.What is a Neural Network?

  • Ans:- Neural Network is a supervised machine learning algorithm which is inspired by human nervous system and it replicates the similar to how human brain is trained. It consists of Input Layers, Hidden Layers, & Output Layers.

64.What are the various types of Neural Networks?

  • Ans:- Artificial Neural Network, Recurrent Neural Networks, Convolutional Neural Networks, Boltzmann Machine Networks, Hopfield Networks are examples of the Neural Networks. There are a few other types as well.

65.What is the use of activation functions in neural network?

  • Ans:- Activation function is used to convert a input signal of a node in a A-NN to an output signal. That output signal now is used as a input in the next layer in the stack.

66.What are the different types of activation functions in neural network?

  • Ans:- Sigmoid or Logistic, Tanh or Hyperbolic tangent, ReLu or Rectified Linear units are examples of activation functions in neural network

67.What is the package name to implement neural network in R?

  • Ans:- neuralnet package can be used to implement neural network in R

68.What is a probability distribution?

  • Ans:- A probability distribution is a function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment. In a probability distribution, random variable is plotted on X axis and associated probabilities are plotted on Y axis

69.What are the classifications of probability distributions?

  • Ans:- Probability distributions are categorized in two, Discrete and Continuous probability distributions. In discrete probability distribution underlying random variable is discrete whereas in conitnusous probability distribution underlying random variable is continuous

70.What do you mean by discrete random variable?

  • Ans:- A discrete random variable is a random variable that has countable values, such as a list of non-negative integers.

71.Examples of discrete random variables.

  • Ans:- Number of students present, number of red marbles in a jar, number of heads when flipping three coins, students' grade level are few of the examples of discrete random variables

72.What do you mean by continuous random variable?

  • Ans:- A continuous random variable is a random variable with a set of possible values (known as the range) that is infinite and uncountable.

73.Examples of continuous random variables

  • Ans:- Height of students in class, weight of students in class, time it takes to get to school, distance traveled between classes are few of the examples of continuous random variables

74.What do you mean by Expected Value?

  • Ans:- Expected value (EV), also known as mean value, is the expected outcome of a given experiment, calculated as the weighted average of all possible values of a random variable based on their probabilities. EV(n) = x1P1 + X2P2+X3P3+...+XnPn

75.What do you mean by Data Type?

  • Ans:- A data type, in programming, is a classification that specifies which type of value a variable has and what type of mathematical, relational or logical operations can be applied to it without causing an error.

76.What are the classifications of data types in Statistics?

  • Ans:- Qualitative and Quantitative are the broader classifications in R, however these are further classified into Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, & Ratio data types.

77.What is the difference between a nominal and an ordinal data type?

  • Ans:- A nominal data type merely is a name or a label. Languages spoken by a person, jersey numbers of football players are examples of Nominal data type. Whereas, on top of being a name or a label, Ordinal data type has some natural ordering associated with it. Shirt sizes, Likert scale rating, Ranks of a competition, Educational background of a person are examples of Ordinal data type

78.How is Interval data type different from Ratio?

  • Ans:- Interval scales are numeric scales in which we know not only the order, but also the exact differences between the values, but the problem with the problem with interval scales is that they don’t have a “true zero". Temperature and Dates are examples of Interval data type. Whereas Ratio data type tell us about the order, exact value between units, and they also have an absolute zero. Heights & Weights of people, length of a object

79.Why Data Types are important?

  • Ans:- Any statistical method, be it descriptive, predictive or prescriptive can be employed only based on the data type of the variable. Incorrect identification of data types leads to incorrect modeling which in turn leads to incorrect solution.

80.What do you mean by an Absolute Zero?

  • Ans:- Absolute zero means true absence of a value. We do not have any absolute zero in Interval data type. One such example is 0 Celsius temperature which does not mean that the temperature is absent.

81.Which data object in R is used to store and process categorical data?

  • Ans:- The Factor data objects in R are used to store and process categorical data in R.

82.What is a Factor variable?

  • Ans:- Factor variable is a variable which can take only limited set of values. In other words, the levels of a factor variable will be limited.

83.What is the difference between "%%" and "%/%"?

  • Ans:- "%%" gives remainder of the division of first vector with second while "%/%" gives the quotient of the division of first vector with second.

84.What is lazy function evaluation in R?

  • Ans:- The lazy evaluation of a function means, the argument is evaluated only if it is used inside the body of the function. If there is no reference to the argument in the body of the function then it is simply ignored.

85.What is the output for the below expression all(NA==NA)?

  • Ans:- NA

86.What is the difference between subset() function and sample() function in R?

  • Ans:- The subset() functions is used to select variables and observations. The sample() function is used to choose a random sample of size n from a dataset.

87.Is an array a matrix or a matrix an array?

  • Ans:- Every matrix can be called an array but not the reverse. Matrix is always two dimensional but array can be of any dimension.

88.How do you convert the data in a JSON file to a data frame?

  • Ans:- Using the function

89.What is R Base package?

  • Ans:- This is the package which is loaded by default when R environment is set. It provides the basic functionalities like input/output, arithmetic calculations etc. in the R environment.

90.What is recycling of elements in a vector? Give an example.

  • Ans:- When two vectors of different length are involved in a operation then the elements of the shorter vector are reused to complete the operation. This is called element recycling. Example - v1 <- c(4,1,0,6) and V2 <- c(2,4) then v1*v2 gives (8,4,0,24). The elements 2 and 4 are repeated.


91.What is reshaping of data in R?

  • Ans:- In R the data objects can be converted from one form to another. For example we can create a data frame by merging many lists. This involves a series of R commands to bring the data into the new format. This is called data reshaping.

92.What is the output of runif(4)?

  • Ans:- It generates 4 random numbers between 0 and 1.

93.What are the different types of Discrete Probability Distributions?

  • Ans:- Binomial, Poisson, Negative Binomial, Geometric, Hypergeometric are the examples of Discrete Probability Dsitributions

94.What are the different types of Continuous Probability Distribution?

  • Ans:- Normal, Exponential, t, f, Chi-square, Unifrom, Weibull are few of the examples of Continuous Probability Distributions

95.What do you mean by Binomial Distribution?

  • Ans:- Binomial Distribution can be simply thought of as the probability of Success of Failure outcome in an experiment that is conducted multiple times. Exmaples: Head and Tail outcomes after tossing a coin, Pass or Fail after appearing for an examination.

96.What is a Poisson Distribution?

  • Ans:- Poisson Distribution gives the probability of a number of events happening in a fixed interval or space. Number of customers visiting a restaurant every day

97.What do you mean by Negative Binomial Distribution?

  • Ans:- It is the distribution of number of successes occuring in a sequence of independently and identically distributed Bernoulli trials before a specied number of failures occurs Example: From a lot of tires containing 5% defectives, if 4 tires have to be chosen at random then what is the probability of finding 2 defective tires before 4 good ones.

98.Explain Normal Distribution?

  • Ans:- The normal distribution or a bell curve is a probability function that describes how the values of a variable are distributed by its mean and standard deviation. Distribution of heights, weights, salaries of people are examples of Normal distribution

100.What do you mean by Uniform Distribution?

  • Ans:- Uniform Distribution is the simplest of all the statistical distributions. It is sometimes also known as a rectangular distribution, is a distribution that has constant probability. This distribution is defined by two parameters, a and b, a being minimum value and b the maximum value. Examples: Probability of a flight landing between 25 to 30 minutes when it is anounced that the flight will be landing in 30 minutes. Continuous Uniform Distribution (resembles rectangle) and Discrete Uniform Distribution (rectangle in the form of a dots) are the two types of Uniform Distribution. Examples:

101.What is T Distribution?

  • Ans:- The T distribution also known as, Student’s T-distribution is a probability distribution that is used to estimate population parameters when the sample size is small and/or when the population variance is unknown.

102.Explain F Distribution?

  • Ans:- Probability distribution for the statistical measure 'F-statistic' is called as F Distribution. It will be a skewed dsitribution used for ANOVA testing. Minimum value will be 0 and there is no standard maximum value. Here F statistic is nothing but the value that you get in the output of ANOVA or Regression analysis. F test will tell you if a group of variables are staisitically significant.

103.Explain Weibull Distribution?

  • Ans:- The Weibull distribution is particularly useful in reliability work since it is a general distribution which, by adjustment of the distribution parameters, can be made to model a wide range of life distribution characteristics of different classes of engineered items. Weibull distribution is widely used in assess product reliability, analyze life data, and model failure times i.e, it is widely used in Reliability and Survival Analysis Based on the Beta parameter, Weibull distriution can take different distributions. If Beta<1 then Gamma, Beta=1 then Exponential, Beta=2 then Lognormal, Beta=3.5 then Normal.

104.When is it appropriate to employ a Bar plot?

  • Ans:- A Bar plot of a numerical variable will be cluttered and makes it difficult for interpretation, whereas it makes sense to employ bar plot on categorical variable as we can interpret it in an efficient way.

105.Why Standard Deviation when we have Variance measure?

  • Ans:- Variance is calculated to find how the individual data points are away from the mean, nothing but dispersion in the data. It is calculated as the averge of the square of the difference of mean from each data point. So from this calculation, we know for a fact that units are getting squared. There is way to get rid of squared units without having the necessity of standard deviation is by taking an absolute instead of square in the variance calculation. But the problem with taking absolute is it will lead to misleading results, for example, two variable X1(4,4,-4,-4) & X2(7,1,-6,-2) you get same variance as 4 if absolute is used and different variances as 4 & 4.74 when squared is used. For this reason we resort to squaring the difference of each value from it's mean. At this stage, if we interpret dispersion of data based on Variance, it shall confusion as the values & units are squared. Hence, we resort to Standard Deviation.

106.Why the probability associated with a single value of a continuous random variable is considered to be zero?

  • Ans:- A continuous random variable takes an infinite number of possible values. As the number of values assumed by the random variable is infinite, the probability of observing a single value is zero.

107.List out the different Sampling Techniques.

  • Ans:- Probability Sampling and Non-Probability Sampling are the broader classifications of Sampling techniques. The difference lies between the above two is whether the sample selection is based on randomization or not. With randomization, every element gets equal chance to be picked up and to be part of sample for study.

108.What do you mean by Sampling Error?

  • Ans:- An error occured during the sampling process if referred to as a Sampling Error. It can include both Systematic Sampling Error or Random Sampling Error. Systematic sampling error is the fault of the investigation, but random sampling error is not.

109.Explain Probability Sampling and it's types

  • Ans:- This Sampling technique uses randomization to make sure that every element of the population gets an equal chance to be part of the selected sample. It’s alternatively known as random sampling. Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Sampling, Systematic Sampling, Cluster Sampling, Multi stage Sampling are the types of Probability Sampling

110.Explain Simple Random Sampling.

  • Ans:- Every element has an equal chance of getting selected to be the part sample. It is used when we don’t have any kind of prior information about the target population.For example: Random selection of 20 students from class of 50 student. Each student has equal chance of getting selected. Here probability of selection is 1/50

111.Explain Stratified Sampling.

  • Ans:- This technique divides the elements of the population into small subgroups (strata) based on the similarity in such a way that the elements within the group are homogeneous and heterogeneous among the other subgroups formed. And then the elements are randomly selected from each of these strata. We need to have prior information about the population to create subgroups.

112.Explain Cluster Sampling.

  • Ans:- Our entire population is divided into clusters or sections and then the clusters are randomly selected. All the elements of the cluster are used for sampling. Clusters are identified using details such as age, sex, location etc. Single Stage Cluster Sampling or Two Stage Cluster Sampling can be used to performm Cluster Sampling

113.Explain Multi-Stage Sampling

  • Ans:- It is the combination of one or more probability sampling techniques. Population is divided into multiple clusters and then these clusters are further divided and grouped into various sub groups (strata) based on similarity. One or more clusters can be randomly selected from each stratum. This process continues until the cluster can’t be divided anymore. For example country can be divided into states, cities, urban and rural and all the areas with similar characteristics can be merged together to form a strata.

114.Explain Non-Probability Sampling and it's types

  • Ans:- It does not rely on randomization. This technique is more reliant on the researcher’s ability to select elements for a sample. Outcome of sampling might be biased and makes difficult for all the elements of population to be part of the sample equally. This type of sampling is also known as non-random sampling. Convenience Samping, Purposive Sampling, Quota Sampling, Referral/Snowball Sampling are the types of Non-Probability Sampling

115.Explain Convenience Sampling

  • Ans:- Here the samples are selected based on the availability. This method is used when the availability of sample is rare and also costly. So based on the convenience samples are selected. For example: Researchers prefer this during the initial stages of survey research, as it’s quick and easy to deliver results.

116.Explain Purposive Sampling

  • Ans:- This is based on the intention or the purpose of study. Only those elements will be selected from the population which suits the best for the purpose of our study.For Example: If we want to understand the thought process of the people who are interested in pursuing master’s degree then the selection criteria would be “Are you interested for Masters in..?”. All the people who respond with a “No” will be excluded from our sample.

117.Explain Quota Sampling

  • Ans:- This type of sampling depends of some pre-set standard. It selects the representative sample from the population. Proportion of characteristics/ trait in sample should be same as population. Elements are selected until exact proportions of certain types of data is obtained or sufficient data in different categories is collected. For example: If our population has 45% females and 55% males then our sample should reflect the same percentage of males and females.

118.Explain Referral /Snowball Sampling

  • Ans:- This technique is used in the situations where the population is completely unknown and rare. Therefore we will take the help from the first element which we select for the population and ask him to recommend other elements who will fit the description of the sample needed. So this referral technique goes on, increasing the size of population like a snowball.For example: It’s used in situations of highly sensitive topics like HIV Aids. Not all the victims will respond to the questions asked so researchers can contact people they know or volunteers to get in touch with the victims and collect information

119.Explain Systematic Sampling Error.

  • Ans:- When errors are systematic, they bias the sample in one direction. Under these circumstances, the sample does not truly represent the population of interest. Systematic error occur s when the sample is not drawn properly. It can also occur if names are dropped from the sample list because some individuals were difficult to locate or uncooperative. Individuals dropped from the sample could be different from those retained. Those remaining could quite possibly produce a biased sample. Political polls often have special problems that make prediction difficult.

120.Explain Random Sampling Error.

  • Ans:- Random sampling error, as contrasted to systematic sampling error, is often referred to as chance error. Purely by chance, samples drawn from the same population will rarely provide identical estimates of the population parameter of interest. These estimates will vary from sample to sample. For example, if you were to flip 100 unbiased coins, you would not be surprised if you obtained 55 heads on one trial, 49 on another, 52 on a third, and so on.

121.Sigma in statistics represents Standard Deviation. Say for a normally distributed data, the Standard Deviation is 5 and the mean is 50, then +_1sigma will have the range of 50-1(5) and 50+1(5) i.e., [45,55], 31% of the given data will be in this range. On similar lines, if calculated, you get the range as [40,60], 69% for +_2sigma and [35,65], 93% for +_3sigma respectively.

  • Ans:- Sigma in statistics represents Standard Deviation. Say the Standard Deviation is 5 and the mean is 50, then +_1sigma will have the range of 50-1(5) and 50+1(5) i.e., [45,55] . 31% of the given data will be in this range. On similar lines, if calculated, you get the range as [40,60] i.,e 69% for +_2sigma and [35,65] i.e., 93% for +_3sigma respectively

122.What do you mean by Empirical Rule?

  • Ans:- In Statistics, 68–95–99.7 rule is also known as the empirical rule or three sigma rule. For a Gaussian distribution the the mean (arithmetic average), median (central value), and mode (most frequent value) coincide. Here, area under the curve between ± 1s (1 sigma) includes 68% of all values (of the population), while ± 2s (2 sigma) includes 95% and ± 3s (3 sigma) includes 99.7% of all values.

123.In order to come up with a Linear Regression output a minimum of how many obervations are required.

  • Ans:- a. 1, b. 2, c. 30, d. None . Correct Answer is b which is 2. Output of Linear Regression is in the form of equation of straight line which requires atleast 2 observations.

124.How can you say that Standard Normal Distribution is better than Normal Distribution?

  • Ans:- It is inappropriate to say that Sam with 80 score in English Literature is better than Tom with 60 score in Pyschology, as the variability of scores within the subjects may vary. In order to compare the scores of two different subjects, we need to standardize the deviations of the subjects and then compare the results.. This can be done using Z transformation, which gives 0 as mean and 1 as Standard Deviation for any normally distributed data. Assuming SD=77, Mean=3 for English Literature and SD=56 , Mean=2 and Pyschology, we get 1,2 as z scores or SD away from Mean for English Literature and Pyschology. Now you can say that English Literature Tom performed better than Sam.

125.What do you mean by a Quantile?

  • Ans:- Often referred to as Percentiles, Quantiles are the point(values) in your data below which certain proportion of data falls. For example Median is also a quantile or 50th percentile below which 50% of the data falls.

126.How is a Normal QQ plot plotted , what is it's use and why is it called as a Normal QQ plot?

  • Ans:- A Q-Q Plot or a Quantile-Quantile Plot is plotted by considering raw values of a variable on Y axis and it's standardized values on X axis. It is used to assess the distribution of the underlying data, the distribution could be any of the theoretical distributions like Normal, Exponential, etc. Mostly we will be interested to find if the distribution of underlying data (variable) follows normal distribution or not, Q-Q Plot is called as Normal Q-Q Plot

127.What is the use of the reference line in Normal Q-Q plot?

  • Ans:- Reference Line indicates the normal distribution of the data. If most of the data points in a Normal Q-Q Plot are falling across the refence line then we say that the distribution of the undelying data (variable) follows Normal Distribution.

128.What are the R functions to plot QQ Plot and the reference line in a Q-Q Plot

  • Ans:- qqnorm() is used to plot a Q-Q Plot whereas qqline() is used to plot the refence line

129.Differentiate between Sample Variance and Sampling Variation.

  • Ans:- Sample Variance refers to the variation of observations in a single sample whereas Sampling Variance refers to the variation of a statistical measure (eg., Mean) among multiple samples.

130.How is Standard Deviation different from Standard Error?

  • Ans:- Stadard Deviation and Standard Error are both measures of dispersion or spreadness. Standard Deviation uses Population data and Standard Error uses Sample data. Standard Error tells you have far a sample statistic (eg., sample mean) deviates from the actual Population mean. This deviation is referred as the Standard Error. Larger the sample size, less will be the deviation (SE) between the sample mean and the population mean.

131.Explain Central Limit Theorem

  • Ans:- Central Limit Theorem explains about the distribution of the sample data. The distribution will be normal, if the population data is normally distributed or if the propulation data is not normal but the sample size is fairly large.

132.What is the necessity of a Confidence Interval?

  • Ans:- We cannot trust a point esitmate (for example a sample mean) to infer about Population mean, reason being, if we draw another sample it is more likely that we will get a different sample mean all together. To overcome this problem, we come up with an Interval associated with some Confidence. This can be achieved by including Magin of Error with Point Estimate which gives us the Confidence Interval

133.What is the R function to calculate z value from probability value?

  • Ans:- a. pnorm, b. qnorm, c. qt d. None Ans is b

134.What is the R function to calculate t value from probability value?

  • Ans:- a. pnorm, b. qnorm, c. qt d. None Ans is c

135.Do we have standard z values for different probability values, explain?

  • Ans:- Yes, we have standard z values for different probability values. For example, 1.64 for 90%, 1.96 for 95%, & 2.58 for 99% probability values

136.Do we have standard t values for different probability values, explain?

  • Ans:- We will not have standard t values for different probability values, reason being the computation of t value includes degrees of freedom, which is dependent on the sample size. Hence for the same probability with different degrees of freedom we get different t values.

137.Why do we have to include Random Sample while interpreting Confidence Interval?

  • Ans:- If we were asked to comment about Population Mean (a single value, which do not change) by using Sample Data (randomly selected from the Population), we do not calculate Population Mean( i.e., Point Estimate) instead we come up with a Confidence Interval. Now, if another Sample Data is randomly drawn and CI is computed then then it is quite obvious that we will get a different CI all together. Hence, you can say that CI is dependent on the drawn sample. Therefore, it is always mandatory to interpret CI by including random sample.

138.What do you mean by Degrees of Freedom?

  • Ans:- Degrees of freedom are the number of independent values that a statistical analysis can estimate. You can also think of it as the number of values that are free to vary as you estimate parameters They appear in the output of Hypothesis Tests, Probability Distributions, Regression Analysis. Degrees of freedom is equal your sample size minus the number of parameters you need to calculate during an analysis. It is usually a positive whole number.

139.When do we go for T distribution?

  • Ans:- T Distribution or Student's T Distribution is employed when the Population Standard Deviation is unknonw and the sample size is less than 30. If the Sample Size is >= 30 then T Distribution appears similar to Normal Distribution

140.What do you mean by Hypothesis Testing?

  • Ans:- It is the way of testing results of an experiment whether they are valid and meaningful and have not occured just by chance. If the results have happened just by chance then the experiment cannot be repeated and is not reusable.

141.What is Null Hypothesis in Hypothesis Testing?

  • Ans:- Null Hypothesis is nothing but a statement which is usually true. On top of Null Hypothesis we conduct various Hypothesis Tests to see if Null Hypothesis holds true or not. Null Hypothesis is denoted by Ho.

142.Why is naive Bayes so ‘naive’ ?

  • Ans:- naive Bayes is so ‘naive’ because it assumes that all of the features in a data set are equally important and independent. As we know, these assumption are rarely true in real world scenario.

143.What do you mean by Prior Probability?

  • Ans:- Prior probability is the proportion of dependent variable in the data set. It is the closest guess you can make about a class, without any further information.

144.How is True Positive Rate and Recall related? Write the equation.

  • Ans:- True Positive Rate = Recall. Yes, they are equal having the formula (TP/TP + FN).

145.How do you select important variables in EDA?

  • Ans:- 1 Remove the correlated variables prior to selecting important variables 2 Use linear regression and select variables based on p values 3 Use Forward Selection, Backward Selection, Stepwise Selection 4 Use Random Forest, Xgboost and plot variable importance chart 5 Use Lasso Regression 6 Measure information gain for the available set of features and select top n features accordingly.

146.What is the difference between covariance and correlation?

  • Ans:- Covariance is a measure to know how to variables change together.Covariances are difficult to compare. For example: if we calculate the covariances of salary ($) and age (years), we’ll get different covariances which can’t be compared because of having unequal scales. To combat such situation, we calculate correlation to get a value between -1 and 1, irrespective of their respective scale. Correlation is the standardized form of covariance.

147.Is there a way to capture the correlation between continuous and categorical variable?

  • Ans:- ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) technique to capture association between continuous and categorical variables.

148.what is the difference between covariance and correlation?

  • Ans:- A classification trees makes decision based on Gini Index and Node Entropy. Gini index says, if we select two items from a population at random then they must be of same class and probability for this is 1 if population is pure. Entropy is the measure of impurity in the dataset. Entropy is zero when a node is homogeneous. It is maximum when a both the classes are present in a node at 50% – 50%. Lower entropy is desirable.

149.What is a LogLoss function and where is it used?

  • Ans:- In classification techniques, instead of predicting the actual classes, a measure called as LogLoss is used to predict the probabilities for an observation,.

150.What do you mean by Cross Entropy?

  • Ans:- Cross Entropy essenitally is similar to log loss function used to measure the probabilities of an actual label. Generally, Log loss term is used in Binary classifications, whereas Cross Entropy is used for multiple classification.

151.Given Decision Tree & Random Forest, which one do you think might create an overfitting problem and which one solves the overfitting problem

  • Ans:- Decision Tree has the tendency of overfitting because for the fact, it tries to build as much accurate model as possible by selecting the root node & the internal nodes based on the measure Gain. This Decision Tree will behave very well on the training data but might not generalize it's predictions on the test data. To overcome this problem, we have a reliable ensemble algorithm called as Random Forest which helps in tackling the overfitting problem by creating creating a lot of decision trees (built using a fewer input variables) and just not a single one. Finally, the results will be considered based on majority voting or an average of all the results.

152.Draw parallels between KMeans Clustering & KNN?

  • Ans:- Both are purely trial and error methods, we try with different values of K to find the best value. Another similarity is the distance measure involved. Both the algorithms have distance measure calculations.

153.For a coefficient value of -0.65123 for an input variable what has to be the interpretation of Log(Carpool/Car) in a multinomial regression?

  • Ans:- First of all, the sign (+ve,-ve) indicates the impact of the input variable on the output mode. In this case, if there is a unit increase in the input variable i.e.,, the Log(Carpool/Car) decreases by 0.65123

154.For Logiistic Regression, is it a good practice to decide on the goodness of the model based on just accuracy, or is there anything else we can look at.

  • Ans:- Output of the Logistic Regression is great, you have multiple measures using which you can comment about the accuracy and reliability of the model. Like, probabilitites of parameters, Null Deviance, Residual Deviance, stepAIC (to compare mutliple models), confusion matrix, overall accuracy, Sensitivity (Recall), Specificity, ROC Curve, Lift Chart are the measures you might want to look at based on the context of the business objective.

155.How does Multinomial Regression predicts the probabilities of class labels, given the fact that you have more than 2 class labels?

  • Ans:- In a way, Multinomial Regression builds n-1 individual Logistic Regression models, here n is the number of class labels. Applying exponential on either sides of the the n-1 model outputs and then solving them gives us the individual probabilities for the n class labels. Once we get the probabilities we then classify observations as the class labels.

156.Why is SVM called as a black box technique?

  • Ans:- SVM is termed as a black box technique, as internally the algorithm applies complex transformations on the input variables based on the Kernel trick applied. Although, the math of these tranformations is not hidden but slightly complex. Becasue of this complexity, SVM is known as a black box technique.

157.Why are Ensemble techniques more preferred than other classification models?

  • Ans:- Firstly the ensemble techniques assure about the reliability of the accuracy. This however can also be achieved for non-ensemble techniques by employing various reliability techniques. One such popular technique is k-fold cross validation. Secondly, it's the way how intelligently the classifications are predicted in ensemble techniques.

158.Which pre-processing steps can be considered before building a recommendation system?

  • Ans:- Imputing the missing values, normalization, SVD or PCA or Clustering, similarity measures can be considered as the pre-processing steps before Recommendation Systems.

159.What is the need of having Confidence and Lift Ratio, when you have the Support measure?

  • Ans:- Support measure helps us in filtering out all the possible combination of rules which are expnential. Effect of Antecedent or Conseqent being a generalized product cannot be filtered out just by definig Support. Confidence helps in filtering out Antecedents being generalized products and Lift Ratio helps in filtering our Consequents being generalized ones.

160.Are you aware of the algorithm which employs Affinity Analysis ?

  • Ans:- Apriori is the algorithm which employs Affinity Analysis.

161.What is User based collaborative filtering?

  • Ans:- In User Based Collaborative Filtering, users act as rows and items as columns. Here we try to find the similarity among the users.

162.What is Item based collaborative filtering?

  • Ans:- In Item Based Collaborative Filtering, items act as rows and users as columns. Here we try to find the similarity among the items.

163.How is Item based collaborative filtering different from User based collaborative filtering?

  • Ans:- When compared to Users, count of Items will be more. And in Item based collaborative filtering, we try to find similarity among the items which inturn makes the process computationally expensive. In addition to this, in User based collaborative filtering, by trying to find the similarity among the users we try to connect to the usre's taste. Whereas Item based collaborative filtering is somewhat similar to Market Basket Analysis where in we generalize the results.

164.Can we normalize the data before employing Recommendation Systems?

  • Ans:- It is appropriate to normalize the data when we have the values like ratings(1-5) as opposed to having values as purchased/not purchased or rated/not rated.

165.What is the first thing that you need to look at when you are given a dataset?

  • Ans:- The first check should be made on NA values. Check if there are any NA values present in the data or not. If present, then impute the NA values rather than deleting the observations having NAs.

166.What happens when missing values are not treated?

  • Ans:- Missing data can reduce the power/fit of a model or can lead to a biased model making incorrect predictions or classifications.

167. What could be the reasons for the presence of NA values in the data?

  • Ans:- Data Extraction and Data Collection are considered to be the major reasons for missing values.

168.What are the reasons for the NAs while collecting the data?

  • Ans:- Missing completely at random, Missing at random, Missing that depends on unobserved predictors, Missing that depends on the missing value itself are the reasons for NAs while collecting the data.

169.What are the various imputation techniques?

  • Ans:- Listwise deletion, Pairwise deletion, Mean/Mode Substitution, Prediction model, KNN Imputation, Hot Deck Imputation, Maximum Likelihood, Multiple Imputation are the various imputation techniques

170.Explain Pairwise Deletion imputation technique?

  • Ans:- For each record, correlation between each combination of variables is computed. If the correlation is a junk value for two subsequent correlations, then the common value will be dropped from any computation.

171.How can we employ prediction modeling in imputation?

  • Ans:- We divide dataset into two halves. One with no missing values (train data) and the other one with the missing values (test data). Variable with missing values is treated as the target variable. Next, we create a model to predict the target variable based on other attributes of the training data set.

172.What are the drawbacks of the prediction model imputation?

  • Ans:- There are two drawbacks for this approach. First is that the model estimated values are usually more well-behaved than the true values. Second is that, if there is no relationships with attributes in the data set and the attribute with missing values, then the model will not be precise for estimating missing values.

173.Explain KNN Imputation

  • Ans:- In this method, the missing values of an attribute are imputed using the given number of attributes that are most similar to the attribute whose values are missing. The similarity to the attribute is determined using a discrete function.

174.What are the advantages of using KNN imputation?

  • Ans:- KNN can predict both qualitative and quantitaive attributes Creation of predictive model for each attribute with missing data is not required Attributes with multiple missing values can be easily treated Correlation structure of the data is take into consideration

175.What are the disadvantages of using KNN imputation?

  • Ans:- KNN imputation is a very time-consuming in analyzing large database. It searches throughout the dataset looking for most similar instances. Choice of K value is critical. Higher values of K would include attributes which are significantly different from what we need whereas lower value of K implies missing out of significant attributes.

176.Explain Hot Deck Imputation

  • Ans:- Algorithm traverses from top to bottom in a column, if any NA is found, it makes note of the other values of that record and traverses down till the end and goes up and comes back to the same position of NA. During this traverse it looks for for the exact matches of the record values it noted down and replace the value of NA with the exact matched record. But mostly, we did not find an exact match. If no exact match found, then we need to resort to other techniques like Mean/Mode imputation.

Bagging and Boosting

Bagging and Boosting are the two very important ensemble methods* to improve the measure of accuracy in predictive models which is widely used. While performing a machine learning algorithm we might come across various errors such as noise, bias, and variance and to overcome these errors we apply ensemble methods. As we know that, when applying Decision Tree for our models, we deal with only one tree to get the result. However, in case of Bagging and Boosting we deal with N defined learners and later these learners are combined to form a strong learner resulting in a more accurate result.

So, how does it happen?

The train data is randomly sampled as N learners and those N learners further results to provide the accuracy. When we discuss about Bagging and Boosting, these two techniques minutely differ during execution. In case of Bagging (Bootstrap Aggregation), the N learners as chosen gives separate results and later the average of this results is considered as the final accuracy measure but in case of Boosting each learner is given a weight according to the model results, if the result is higher , then the weight assign will also be higher. So, we can also say that Boosting technique also keeps a track of net error at each step of its performance.

Let us look at the Pros and Cons of Bagging and Boosting techniques.



  • Bagging method helps when we face variance or overfitting in the model. It provides an environment to deal with variance by using N learners of same size on same algorithm.

  • During the sampling of train data, there are many observations which overlaps. So, the combination of these learners helps in overcoming the high variance.

  • Bagging uses Bootstrap sampling method.



  • Bagging is not helpful in case of bias or underfitting in the data.

  • Bagging ignores the value with the highest and the lowest result which may have a wide difference and provides an average result.




  • Boosting technique takes care of the weightage of the higher accuracy sample and lower accuracy sample and then gives the combined results.

  • Net error is evaluated in each learning steps. It works good with interactions.

  • Boosting technique helps when we are dealing with bias or underfitting in the data set.

  • Multiple boosting techniques are available. For example: AdaBoost, LPBoost, XGBoost, GradientBoost, BrownBoost


  • Boosting technique often ignores overfitting or variance issues in the data set.

  • It increases the complexity of the classification.

  • Time and computation can be a bit expensive.

What are the applications of ensemble methods in the real world?


There are multiple areas where Bagging and Boosting technique is used to boost the accuracy.

  1. Banking: Loan defaulter prediction, fraud transaction

  2. Credit risks

  3. Kaggle competitions

  4. Fraud detection

  5. Recommender system for Netflix

  6. Malware

  7. Wildlife conservations and so on.



Ensemble Methods*, several Decision trees are combined to provide better accuracy model rather than using single Decision tree.


Principle of Parsimony

The principle of parsimony also referred as Occam’s razor explains the selection of the simplest explanation that fits for best results when we have more than one option to choose. When we apply principle of parsimony, we tend to select the phenomena with the least entity. However, in principle of parsimony it is more about considering the simplest and relevant explanation. So we can say that “the assumption which is simplest as well as has all necessary information required to get a hold on the experiment we are into” justifies the principle of Parsimony. We can use principle of parsimony in many scenarios or events in our day to day life including Data Science model predictions.


Lets us assume two cases: Case 1, where in there are total 8 supporting evidences to explain an event and Case 2, wherein there are 5 supporting evidences to explain an event. So, according to principle of parsimony, we tend to select Case 2, provided all the evidences are important and relevant.

Let us have a look on examples from specific fields.

  1. Principle of Parsimony in route selection:

In Data Structures, we come across a theory of shortest spanning tree for simplest route selection. This route selection can be made using many algorithms available in data structures. Example: Prim’s algorithm, Krushkal’s algorithm etc. So, before we construct any algorithm, we ought to consider a theory that would provide the shortest and the best path without affecting the time and cost that it takes to reach the destination.

Example: If we have to reach Delhi from Haridwar, the wise way would be to select the simplest and safest path rather than choosing a complex route which takes huge amount of time and fuel cost.

  1. Principle of Parsimony in Regression technique under the Machine Learning domain:

When it comes to model building using linear regression, we tend to see coefficient of determination, R2, for accuracy of the model built.

For example, consider a large dataset that has 8 attributes and 1 target variable. There can be cases when collinearity between multiple variables may exist, in such a scenarios, there can be a downfall in the accuracy measure of the model. After multiple comparisons and deletion of the unnecessary variables we may be able to increase the accuracy value of the model.

Let us take an example below:

Z is the dependant variable and A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I are the rest of the independent variables to create a multiple linear regression model.

Model 1: Z = a0 + a1 A + a2 B + a3 C + a4 D + a5 E + a6 F + a7 G + a8 H + a9 I ; R2 = 0.81

Model 2: Z = a0 + a1 A + a2 B + a3 C + a4 D + a5 H + a6 I ; R2 = 0.85

Model 3: Z = a0 + a1 A + a2 B + a3 C + a4 D + a5 G + a6 H + a7 I; R2 = 0.86

Note: The measure of accuracy can be found out by using any software R, python, etc.

Observe the above three models and the complexity of it in terms of number of independent variables used and its R2 value. It is evident that the accuracy measure of Model 2 is 0.85 (though slightly less than model 3) and has less number of variables as compared to Model 3. So by the principle of parsimony without compromising much on the accuracy of the model we choose simplest model. Here our selection would be Model 2 as compared to other models. There are also other algorithms of Machine Learning and deep learning where we can apply principle of parsimony. For example: Neural Networks, KNN, etc.

  1. Principle of Parsimony in Biology:

In the biology field, when it comes to determination of evolutionary relationships between different species; this relationship can be determined by using the application of phylogenetic trees where a tree is constructed by identifying common ancestors. Principle of parsimony is applicable here when we choose the phylogenetic tree which has the least changes.


How Data Analytics Certification Can Contribute to Your Career

Certification plays a very significant role in the selection procedure of a candidate. But choosing the study which can contribute to your career can be a daunting task as getting the certification is not that easy. Sometimes, a student goes wrong with choosing the field and later on regrets. To avoid these situations from affecting your career, it is important to choose the relevant study that has the scope of a good career and a perfect reason why an employer should invest in you. Not only this but keeping on learning and gaining knowledge after the completion of the study is also important. Data Analytics is that certification which comes with many pros contributing to your career growth. Let us move on to how data analytics courses can boost your career.

1. Increase the Chances to Possess Different Job Titles

Choosing the data analytics certification to give the scope of different job titles from which you can pick up the one as per your choice and comfort. Let us talk in detail about which of the job title you can go with once you have completed the professional data analytics certification.

i) Data Analyst: The job of a data analyst is to get insights from data that will directly have an impact on business decisions.

ii) Business Intelligence Analyst:The person with this job title is to use data for figuring out the latest business and market trends. The difference between data analyst and BI analyst is that BI analyst determines the data and evaluates the business needs for improving the overall system of the organization. Whereas, the data analyst works on the algorithms to analyze the relationship between data offering perceptions.

iii) Data Visualizer:One can also become a data visualizer after completing the data analytics course. The job of the visualizer is to lead the teams towards data science using the set of skills and advanced techniques.

2. Defines Your Credibility

Certification is not only about what you have studied or how much you have scored. It is the authentication of your skills that an organization looks first before hiring a data analyst. They look for the candidates who have completed their training from professional institutes. So, pursuing professional certification in data analytics is the proof of high standardized education and the main reason why a company should appoint you.

3. Potential Increase in Salary

People consider many factors while making their choices and money is obviously the one. Even many of the searches have proven that career in the data analytics field offers a lucrative salary. There are no other opportunities outside like data analytics that can allow people to make most out of their job. So, this is also one important factor that contributes to the growth of your career.

If you want to both learn and grow in the field of data analytics then ExcelR is a global leading company in delivering a wide range of technical and managerial training. Connect with us to have a successful career ahead!


What Are the Benefits Of Online Training?

If you are a knowledge enthusiast who is always looking forward to grabbing on some information, one of the best ways to that is to seek online classes. Though you may be wondering that the most effective type of learning is to reach out for some coaching center or schools. Especially, when you are planning to get into something interesting like data analyst course, you always try to seek those options where you can actually give a boost to your skills. However, if you get an opportunity to participate in some online classes, it can help you with great gains with so many benefits.


Easy Coaching:

when you invest your time into some online classes, the best thing about such tutorials is easy coaching. The right training can help you work on your career advancement as well as polishing your hobbies into skills. This type of coaching could help you in career advancement if you dedicatedly work to learn and grow your data analysis skills.


No Need to Travel: the second best reason to choose online coaching classes is that you get a lot of time saved. With online coaching, you never have to spend long hours traveling from your home to coaching class rather you could use the time for other productive tasks.  

Easy Revision: one of the other significant benefits of online coaching is that you get a lot of time for easy revision. You can easily go through the concepts by taking access to previous tutorials or in case you have any doubts or queries, you can get a quick recall to what is taught in the last session.

Access to past lessons: last but not least, if you are a data enthusiast who wants to pursue their career as a data analyst, online coaching lets you schedule the class according to your need. Moreover, you can easily get track over past lessons whenever you need with self-discipline and responsibility. Also, it gives you great choice over topics which you need to explore for the better understanding of the data management and analysis..

So, if you are planning to direct your career into a progressive field, there can be nothing more interesting than giving your time to data analyst course through online coaching.

For any queries or course details, feel free to reach our experts.


Taking Insights to The Benefits of Data Analytics

Every business these days need to collect data at every point of the manufacturing and sales process to understand the journey of the product. This may include applications, clicks, interactions, and so many other details related to the business process which can help define goals in a better way. Therefore, we bring you the list of benefits which you can reap with the use of data analytics in your process of management.


Anticipate Needs:

the rise in competition in every industry has to lead to a rise in demand to understand the needs of the customers. This is actually very important to develop relationships with the customers which can last for years. This may need a business to fetch various details related to name, address, email and contact details of the clients to get the details of customer behavior. This may need expert knowledge which you can only gain with Data Analytics Courses that are planned to observe the faults and propose the best solutions to the errors.


Mitigate Risks: the next thing which you can seek an advantage for using data analytics is mitigating the risks associated with the business. The data analytics can help in the successful interpretation of external as well as internal threats which can make it difficult for a business to survive. It can help to align all the processes in order to take count for any risks or errors which can signify frauds.

Adding Relevance: every business has a single reason for which the interaction of the customer and the seller is established and it is the product to be sold. Therefore, it is very crucial that you must add relevance to your product by understanding the needs of the customers with the addition of features and design improvements which can make your product a perfect fit for the target audience. This can be easily achieved with the right interpretation skills which you can only get with Data Analytics Certification.

Service Personalization: the next thing which you need to target for business improvement is to make your service more personalized. For defining the objectives of your business service and products, it is crucial that you must go through big data details created from several customers to plan the steps of success. Data analytics could be used to understand the need of customers and therefore seek its advantage in showing value to the customer creating respect for their needs and attitudes.

Optimizing Customer Experience: last but not least, you can data analytics could also help in optimizing the experience of the customers by working on the factors that can make you show as a brand which reflects loyalty towards the customers. With data study and understanding, you can continuously keep a check on the changes made to the customer preferences and therefore yielding the desired outcomes with perfect management of operations.

So, if you want to pursue the data analytics training process and be an asset of every business organization with right governing and management skills, make sure you spend no more time thinking over the process.

Meet our experts for a quick consultation or call us today!


Data Science V/s Data Analytics –What is More Important

People related to the tech field must have heard about the terms “Data Science” and “Data Analytics”. Both the terms sound similar but have different implications according to the business. Whether you are a business person or not, having knowledge of these terms can have a great impact on your lives. If anyone wants to grow their knowledge about the Data Science, Data Analytics or is interested in starting up with their own business, then there are the variety of courses or training available where you can learn how to implement these terms for the start-up or growth of your business.

Let us talk about Data Science and Data Analytics in detail:

Data Science:

Under the term ‘Data Science’, maths, statistics, and other tools are used in manipulating and analyzing the data. It also makes use of other different theories and models that include machine learning, data mining, computer programming, and more. Here below are discussed some advantages of  Data Science:

Helps to understand the customers in a more efficient and effective way further ensuring brand power and engagement.
Utilizing data in an efficient way can help in achieving the brand goals and only Data Science can help out in doing so. All the data available can be used in different fields including health, travel, education, and more.

It allows the brands and companies to make use of data in a reliable way to create an effective brand and connect to their consumers.

Data Analytics:

The term ‘Data Analytics’ is basically required in Business to Customer Applications. All the organizations combine the data collected from consumers, the economy, and businesses. After the gathering of the information, data is being processed as per the requirements. There are a variety of data analytics courses from where you can learn the vast things about analytics. Take a look at given advantages of Data Analytics.

It detects and corrects the errors further improving the quality of data.It helps in displaying the relevant content and ads on different platforms based on previous customer purchases.Data analytics protects all the financial and physical assets to avoid frauds.

There’s a difference between both the terms but if we talk about the importance then both are equally responsible for the growth of the brand. Both the terms are incomplete without each other.

There’s no need to buy books to gather information about Data analytics and Sciences. We provide the best in data analytics certification and data science course to help you grow in the technical field.


Shape your career with the Data Scientist Course in Hyderabad

The demand of the market is the foremost thing that the student has to understand. You can search the internet to get knowledge of different professional course. But if you are wise then for sure you will look for the course that has been described.

Young pupils always have the hunger to place themselves on the top of the world. But little of them have succeeded to reach the spot. The main reason behind this is that they do not have the knowledge of the course that has been the demand of the market. All they do is to go for the course that has little value in the market. But to place yourself in the leading position all you have to do is to go through the course that has the importance in the market. In this article, we will guide the young minds to go through the courses that have been the need of the market.

Key Benefits

Get the knowledge of maintaining the large amount of data

Information in the present day has been playing a significant role in shaping up the future of the young pupils. Companies out there in the market look for those people who have the knowledge of handling data for the companies. These data may come from different sources, and all they have to do is to maintain the data. But the central question that the students face is that where they will get the best training to learn the process of data maintenance!

Among the different study centers for data maintenance, it has been stated that the data scientist course in Hyderabad is the best. Now it is not the fact to tell that teachers are the main pillars of success in shaping up the career of the students. But if you have logged on the official site of the – data scientist course in Hyderabad you will get to know that this training center for this course has much more things to provide. These things are really the want of the pupils for whom they have got the admission.

The training centers provide the placement of the course

This course has been designed with the assistance of the people who have been working in the industry for years along with the teaching faculties who has years of experience in this field. When these two minds came to shape the future the students, then it is worth to say that companies will show their interest in the institutions that have been providing the course. If you got the admission and learned the course then for guarantee you will land the dream job you have been longing for years.

Modes of Training

Get training both in the classrooms and also in the visual format

It has been found that many times the things that have been learned in the class do not help the pupil to get the things rightly. This is why this course has been shaped in a different way. In this course, the students will also get a video learning cd where they will get to know many more things that may not have been discussed in the class. Also in this cd exercises are provided which the student can show to their teachers through email or through printouts.


Undertake the PMI ACP Certification Training in Bangalore and Become the Expert

22nd century’s commercial undercurrent states that to prevail as a corporation, the corporate projects must be actualized with the victory. So be an assignment conversant by acquiring perfect wisdom over it.

Comprehending the basics

Along with the progressive evolution of the various dimensions and techniques of business doing, the outlook of operating it has also been altered. Whereas previously an enterprise mostly concentrated over its own envisioned merchandise or service, in the modern days, it seeks to expand its horizons. A firm of the 22nd century has not only profit but also ‘growth’ as its bull’s eye. And to accomplish the later one, it is vital that the organization undertakes and triumphs at different sorts of tough and unique projects.

At present phases, the 1/5th proportion of the global society’s GDP gets invested in certain kinds of projects running over the worldly business network. Hence, for giving shape to your dream of being the esteemed and coveted corporate, nimble knowledge about pulling out any and every kind of project is a must criterion for you. Whether as the assignment head or a team member—you are required to be productive in either of the roles. For this, along with the literal wisdom about the hacks of management, you must have an impeccable know-how about the practical aspects of administering a project and working as a group member over it. To achieve this end as an Indian corporate, endeavor in undertaking PMI ACP certification training in Bangalore.

The adept technology to realize

The Agile course of managerial prudence is the best available guidance for you to become learned about the dynamics of turning into a serviceable project member or master. The distinctiveness of this knowledge system is imbibed in the fact that it grooms you with perfection about the practical tactics of pulling out all sorts of projects. It teaches you to become:

• Collaborative, intra-functional and self-stimulating • Be the most beneficent team member • Savvy about managing any novel challenge-be it neo customer demand, the firm’s investment in a new dimension or highly volatile market fabric Idea and eventual devising of software that adds speed to the administration and brings profit to your parent firm  Dodging market falls and rises with complacency • Methods of customer convincing and decoding their likes and dislikes • Including clients in the developmental aspects of your employee corporation’s commerce There are six prime methods of studying the Agile course-DSDM, Scrum, XP, TDD, Kanban, and Lean. Each one represents a respective segment of management wisdom, and your pick of one trains you specifically over that.

Pursue the keyword of PMI ACP certification training in Bangalore and add the optimum finesse to your career.

The specific requisites

After completing the Agile course, you are required to undertake the examination organized by the PMI or Professional Management Institution. It is vital you accomplish it since, becoming certified pro matters much in today’s world of top-notch professionalism. The ACP certificate the recognition you reap by passing the test, vows to the world about your assured serviceability as a project conductor and player. But before enrolling in any ACP training, gain:

• Fundamental savvy-ness about the ground-rules of Agile • 2000 hours of actual work experience with projects  Practical Agile comprehension of the least of 1500 hours • Complacency of Agile hacks by a 21 hours stretch of groom

Instead of sighing over the rise and success of colleagues, re-shuffle yourself and venture to put your cognizance over that scholastic realm that makes a corporate who is both prudent and productive

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Guidelines of learning Tableau online training from renowned administration

Numerous students are there who opt for the best institution to enhance their business. For them, the Tableau online course is quite important. Are you seeking for a good institution to enhance your business? You may have got several fundamentals courses on software skills or desktop handling. But in recent times, to upsurge your business in a proper position, you must learn some beneficial software courses.

Why do you need to learn the course?

There are lots of institutions who provide certain interactive courses, classroom courses, online courses and much more to their clients. But to select the best one is completely your responsibility. You have to make sure which one is suitable for you. But after learning all the software courses, you may think that what your next step would be. Numbers of people out there often think to preserve their skills and talents and learn more to enhance the potential.

What do they provide?

So, after completing your further desktop handling program, you have to make sure that you opt for only the best. In addition, Tableau courses program can be your ultimate destination. There are lots of Tableau training institutions available in the marketplace who teaches their students in a great convenient manner. The representation advisors of ability for this type of courses come from plentiful backgrounds, and they have numerous services. The exercise team of such a capacity has much knowledge in taking the Tableau online training students and then making them specialists.

What is the next step?

After completing the course, you have been gathered the plenty of skills and knowledge regarding this. All the services that you acquire while in the institution that you actually never make any practical utilization of will quickly die away. If you do not have a certain source of information or even you have not placed a particular target, all you need to do is commence playing in that course. You may even try experimenting as well as try out unique things.

Excelr modes of training

In this way, you can enhance the business strategy properly. However, there are lots of institutions available in the marketplace. But selecting the best one is completely on your hand. The  Excelr  Solutions is one of the great companies who provide beneficial training. You can easily rely on the specific course because of their excellence and superiority.

Turn into the Evangelist

The statement that the best way of learning a little is by complete guidance it is absolutely right. In addition, the institution believes in the repetition. As you know that practice makes a man perfect so by practising  the course, you will be able to know each and every detail about it.

But whenever you opt for going to take the course to enhance the skill in business, you must do proper research about the institution. The company provides a massive knowledge about modern business to their client. They are available 24*7 for their clients.


Why a PMP Certification course is extremely important for every job seeker ?

Are you opting for a great Administrative who can help you in enhancing your business? Then taking PMP accreditation course is quite important for you.PMP signifies for Project management professional. It is a renowned and well-accepted certification needed by every job seeker. A professional should know about the significance of just being specific for proceeding in that field. It is a well-known accreditation course. This type of program has become an extremely prevalent option in recent times. They authorize specialists to make the best use of their plan administration proficiency set. In addition, it assists them in the profession as well.

Benefits of joining the institution

There are lots if advantages of having this particular authorization. If you are thinking to have this accreditation, you must know the benefits of this as well.

Being not the identical as job seekers

One of the main preferences of gaining such PMP Certification course is, of the opinion that every individual can be idiosyncratic and more astonishing than the rest. Furthermore, they will be prepared for screening the volume to just deal with events much better as the consequence of the valued and wide-ranging course material, which may help in increasing their directorial abilities to an unusual gradation.

It also helps them to head the groups in a massively better-quality method and handle the projects effortlessly. This type of authentication will then enhance the value of the resume in this specific field as well as they are totally fit for being a plan supervisor.

Acknowledgement of skill in the worldwide marketplace

PMP Certification course is accredited across this world. Along with this, an individual will have the volume to reveal to administrators that they can hold the accurate competences to head the group. In addition, further deal developments along with particular services. The certification is appreciated for each kind of commercial starting from the Telecom to business management. They assist in increasing the abilities of authorities. This is remarkably prearranged to get certain authorization.


Shows the aptitude to deal with the lead schemes

When taking the accreditation, all you need to do know about the complete course properly. Such a package is alleged all around as well as individuals along with a certain certificate will have the volume to show entities that they are apt for being an important part of the project administration world. In addition, numerous organizations will also get a distinctive thought of the skills and so provide the accurate place that they were opting for. 

Ascend in beginnings for work

The authentication of this type of certification is continually valuable in landing various job location openings. In fact, the authentication will make the managers feel that an individual is fit the position. They can surely value the position. A management proficient should be organized to deal with the testing activities, and also this package will make every individual build up the approach and ability to deal with testing several works.


How to get the best Business Analytics course from the right institute

In this modern market, you will get a thousand companies that are dealing with various professional training programs. But all of them may not be authentic and helpful for you, so you need to be very conscious when you are going to select a training program and an organisation. Always keep in mind that the certificate courses have a greater value than the ordinary ones in the competitive market.

Reasons to know about the training program

If you want to earn more revenue from the clients and want to expand your business, then you must have a good knowledge in data analysis and a professional training program like Business analytics course can help you in this case. This training program helps you to get an in-depth knowledge in data analysis that helps you to deal with the business in a better way in this competitive market. This helpful training is provided online by many institutions and one of the most reliable training Business analytics course provider. This proper professional training program is very beneficial for them who want to make their career more successful.

How to select an organisation for this training program

You need to know about the institution from where you are going to get the training. In this modern world, the internet is the best source to know about an institute, and you can follow the official website to know about the institute and their courses. The period and the process of training are also provided on the official website. You can call at the helpline number to know about the training program as well. But you should always clear yourself about the authenticity of the institution before applying for a course. The online professional training programs are beneficial for them who have no scope to spend a lot of time for the training. They can go for this online option where they can come to know about the subject in detail from their home only. They need to spend a short time in a day to gather knowledge from their trainers who are skilled and experienced at the same time. The quality of the trainer should also be checked, and you should be satisfied with his ability.

Contact us: 

This training program is not only beneficial for the business men but it also helpful for the ones who are involved in an organisational data analytic position. If you want to make a significant career in this market, then you need to have a good knowledge of the data analysis that helps the business to earn maximum revenue.

This professional training program gets value all over the world, and you can work with your knowledge in a better way and confidently as well. These professional trainers of the Institute are reliable, skilled and helpful to their students. The recorded videos on the lesions are very fruitful for them who want to recap a particular chapter or more. The updated study material for the examination prepares the students.


Overview on the PMP Certification Training in Hyderabad to get a job

Summary: With the developments, which have been made in the professional sector, it is a must that you prepare yourself with the assistance from the best in the business.
The businesses of the specialized and corporate field and this world of Information Technology (IT) are burdened with particular features and arrangements. Agile approval is a standout among important portions of this part. An individual, who holds a particular degree in an agile sequence, grasps the info only to handle the IT expect and to supervise the phases and undertakings of any commercial proceedings.

Knowing about the PMP certification

The excellent demand for the project management experts has driven PMP Certification Training in Hyderabad to excessive elevations. Numerous people want this authorization to raise a ladder of the association and accordingly obtain developed rewards and pays. Here we will discuss all the pre-requisites which an applicant for PMP authorization requires to fulfill.

When a person prepares for this exam, he or she should realize that their mission is just to learn the skills which will take them to a high level them to the desirable location in the organization. This is better that an individual realizes the working of this certification exam that targets actually two certain zones of the training. It includes the practical and theoretical training angles. A review is quite special because of it goals at assessing your skill as well as how finest you will utilize this in an actual life condition.

The Levels to know

After accepting the entire authorization when to enter in the occupation, you should have the sound skill of these specific systems. Abbreviation for Project Management Professional, the specific authorization examination queries the knowledge and skills in heading and prominent teams, with the distribution of a project result.

Each and every individual out there opt for some best job, and this is why they must need to sit for this particular exam. The determined addition in population has encouraged to shortages in openings for work and better choices. Unemployment and underemployment become very regular in recent times. This is why it disturbs the requirements for amazing administrations which can offer a complete satisfactory preparing to substitutes in different fields.

There are lots of centers regarding PMP Certification Training in Hyderabad and if you are quite ambitious towards your life and getting some best job all you have to do is selecting this particular one. This institution will help you to make a better as well as secure future.

There are several preparing formations in the country that provide astonishing capable sequences to substitutes. Aptitude preparation is extremely fundamental in recent times as the bitterness is quite high in the service advertise. In any case, there are numerous variables to reflect while picking formations for improving your occupation talents before you select to join a foundation.

Facts to consider regarding this authorization

Some people out there are able in creative abilities whereas others like to gain some virtual information. There are a lot of concocting formations that can assist all the individuals to achieve their fantasy aptitudes. An occupation direction consultant can give suitable assistance in picking your inclination by measuring your qualities and shortcomings.


Why are students interested in opting for agile certification courses?

The callings of the corporate and specialized field and the world of Information Technology is loaded with specific characteristics and systems. Agile authorization is a standout amongst essential parts of this area. The person, who holds a degree in the agile course, grasps the information to handle an IT anticipate and to oversee the stages and ventures of any business proceedings.

By and vast and definite terms agile courses are intended to screen the creation progress which can be extended with the appointment of specialists to handle in a corporate or IT center point. Presently you may ask why the courses are required when specialists are very much prepared and self-ward to achieve the tasks. Here in this post readers will get adequate knowledge about agile certification.

What the certification meant?

Skillful endeavor administration is a simulative model to manage and coordinate different types of the venture. People, venturing in the specialized circle, must achieve satisfactory information on the matter. For those, who are unaware of various facts about agile authorization, here is a brief guide. Basically, as in agile programming advancement, a coordinated venture is done with specific characteristics.

Each cycle is examined and researched by the venture assemble, which may fuse operators of the client business and also agents. Experienced people are used to making sense of what the following step should be in the venture. Each venture cycle is ordinarily reserved to be done inside portion of the month.

Qualification criteria for Agile Authorization

  • Pass an examination testing learning of Agile fundamentals.
  • Have extensive wander involvement through working for no under two-thousand hours on assignment aggregates in the latest five years.
  • Have Agile experience by working for no under fifteen hundred hours of Agile work gathers in the most recent three years.
  • Must have completed up to twenty-one get ready hours in Agile practices.

Reason for Agile preparing

Upgrading bunch execution and general productivity can be readily achievable by specialists who have gone for Agile preparing. Here are some more purposes relevant to answer any request you may have about Agile. Spry is moreover a solid strategy for administering customer or client ventures, particularly when the unpredictability of the client’s needs is too much troublesome, making it difficult to correctly or entirely portray to the plan of an enterprise. If you still have some doubts about how to opt for the best services then check out the Excelr – agile certification link as soon as possible.

Curiously active part is often utilized as a part of little scale activities as well. With this strategy, the specialist tries to orchestrate and revise the program components to set the sought goals. It is regularly observed that when a venture begins running consistent changes, modifications are required. These for quickly changing advancement cycles are the remaining spots where the lithe venture administrators enjoy their dreams to pace up the strategies.

On an average 67% experts, have taken a shot at four Agile activities in a year, as indicated by the 2015 condition of Scrum Survey Report directed by Scrum Alliance. Apparently, the world is moving in actually applying the most prominent Agile ways to deal with their ventures. What’s more, to answer the request, there is a scope of Agile structures and techniques beat by regarded affirmation programs. These confirmations are likewise running from passage to the propelled venture levels.


Why you must opt for taking up the PMP Certification course online?

Many professionals are rushing after the PMP Certification Exam, not because it is standard and in demand, but because this gifts them the nerve to tell employers that they are already prepared to achieve higher levels of project management.

And in this post readers will get to know some advantages of PMP Certification Course

First, before getting the authorization, you should evaluate yourself: your skills, talents, abilities, your strong points, as well as, your weak points. Know yourself if you have the particular qualifications to take the PMP class. For Bachelor’s Degree, it is required that you have at least three years or 4500 hours of Project Management experience. And for Diploma Degree holders and even high school graduate, you should have 7500 hours experience. Excelr will give you enough information over PMP Certification Course, associated with the topic.

Qualities of a certified person

A certified person should have experience in project direction, initiation, project planning and management, monitoring and project closing. You will be certified through your certifications of these actions. These are the precise necessities to be suitable for the PMP Certification Exam. Then, as you make a submission, your papers will be directly processed if you pass the authorization procedure. If not, you certainly are wasting your time. So, let’s step into the next stage.

Some suggestions to choose appropriate course provider for you

  • Discovery and select a PMP Progression that suits your needs best. There are sufficiently enough to choose from. There have been many businesses and organizations that are proposing Project Management progressions. And most of these courses are running online. However, you should choose a course that is licensed as per the PMI standards and shows PMI registered authorization mark. It will give you guarantee that this online PMP authorization progressions are reliable. PMP classes should comply 35 hours training. But you could also do self-study.
  • Now, before taking the training, you should make sure first that you are a PMI There are lots of advantages and benefits given by PMI if you’re a member. Then, you can apply for an application for PMP Authorization Exam. Implement and make sure you are acknowledged to take the PMP exam. You don’t have to care much about this because it’s completely free. Just wait for five working days and then you’re in!

  • In the intermediate phase of your training, you could actually test yourself, on how conversant you are now. Take online sample questions and try to get an average of 90%. Better select sample items which are very linked to the exam. It will also aid you to tell if you can make up on the actual PMP Authorization Exam or not. Try your best not to leave unanswered questions; it will only help lose points. Also, time yourself. You must be able to answer all the issues within the span of 4 hours. Now, you are ready to take the exam.
  • Search for test sites which are closer to your home; because, you should be able to make it to the trial site an hour before the examination time. It will keep you from stress before the exam and from any hassles that will disturb your mind.
  • And for the last step, schedule your PMP Certification Exam. It is, most likely, preferred to be two weeks before the end of your course or after. There have been several preparations you need to do before the exam, so you need the right time span for those preparations and the exam.

Getting an insight of the useful Data Analytics Courses in Bangalore

Those who have an interest in data and statistics, they can easily deal with this company who provides this type of services.In recent times, the statistics or fact analysis courses are in demand. Each and every individual who have little interest in this specific field, always love to go with the flow. And that is why they make sure that they will work with the best organization. Besides, numbers of organizations are there who provide these types of course to their students are the one who has a reputation and class in the recent marketplace. In fact, the occupation is incredibly renowned and popular amongst people. The interesting fact about this specific training is numbers of youngsters are there who have zeal in this certain business always want to move ahead in their career in this field.

What is data analytics course?

As you know, the oxygen is the key factor to living for each and every human being and as a matter of fact, statistics or facts are the key things for the statistics scientist.

What is data analytics course

The have a certain work just based on the numbers containing statistics or facts collection as well as optimizing. A certain scientist works on a particular figures optimization and along with that, they have to deliver the appropriate value of the facts. Analytics cannot make an exact solution, but they have to deliver the finest solution that they can easily provide to their students. The Data Analytics Courses in Bangalore is available for those people who have an interest in this certain training.

Benefits of their training

Numbers of organizations offers some excellent and high-class services to their trainee. They offer the greatest apparatus as well as excellent services to their suppliers. One can easily keep faith in this certain industry because they have specialized and qualified trainers for all the training over there, and also they deal with the valuable skill and knowledge to their students. An individual can easily gain lots of stuff related to a specific task. They also notify their students about the entire industry also.

The complete teaching methods are extremely Praiseworthy and admirable, and the knowledge and expertise are also contemporary. The association has the finest teaching abilities related to this particular job. Those people who have the intense attention towards this specific job can easily join their establishment.

The teachers rather guides always help their learners in every performance and also try to let them distinguish between the current market value that is related to the analytic work. The Data Analytics Courses in Bangalore arrange for several examinations for their students as well. In fact, they also try to put efforts behind their students so that they can easily gain all the expertise and knowledge about this specific training.

They also prepare their students for several competitive exams and try hard so that their trainees can clear it anyway. After the complete clearance of their exams, they deliver the appropriate job over the business and deliver a massive amount of cash. In addition, they take a complete responsibility of their students in each and every possible way so that they can easily clear the exams.


Graphical Visualizations in R

Graphical Visualizations in R

Visualixing the data not only helps us in aesthetically pleasing graphs but also will help in drawing business insights, which will shape the prganizations & help them be competitive in the market.

Let us have a look at a few charts using R, which we would be using in our daily work.

Let us also look at what can be inferred from the data.

  • Histogram
  • Bar Plot
  • Box plot
  • Scatter Plot
  • Pie Chart
  • Correlogram
  • Hexbin Plots
  • Mosaic Plots
  • Table Plots
  • Missingness map
  • Heat maps
  • Additional Visualizations


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DATEDIFF Function in Tableau

In recent years, advanced analytics has emerged as a critical component in modern business intelligence. Industry in all sectors are moving to take advantage of data science and data scientists need a platform they can depend on and business prefer to rely on tools that simplify their workflow giving best results.

Tableau, Which is one best data visualization and analytics tool, fits the bill perfectly. Let's see some integral features of Tableau which will help us build good visualization with our data. With the drag n drop feature. it is easy to define our requirement and make the analysis really fast. An example for this would be sales of a product. region wise on the Sample superstore dataset. With just a few drag drop fields one can create a visualization of product sales Region Wise. In Tableau we can easily compute, With help of Data Calculation, the average time it takes for an order to ship for each country. Get connected to the Dataset and Right click in the data pane and select Create Calculated Field. Lets call this "Time to Ship". We will use the function called DATADIFF to get the amount of time between Order Data and shipping DAte. The DATADIFF function needs to know what date part we want to consider. Note that the date part, in this case 'day', needs to be lowercase,in single quotes, and singular.We also have a comma. Next, bring out our start date, or Order DAte, another comma, and our end date, or Ship Date, and close parentheness.DATEDIFF('day'.[Order Date], [shipping Date]). We see this calculation is valid and we 'II click OK.

Let's colour the countries by using time to ship

We'II change the aggregation to Average.

We can edit the colors to a red-black diverging plaette and we'll reverse it because more time is bad.Now we can quickly see the countries that the longest times and we can focus on those areas.

Creating Tableau Dates

Tableau works very well with dates once it recognizes the data is a date. Sometimes in dataset, our dates arent in a comma format. We have our dates stored separately as Day, Month, and Yera. We want to create a calculated field that combines these fields into one that TAbleau can recognize.
Right click, create calculated
this Tableau Date.

Right click, create calculated
this Tableau Date.
In the calculation editro, We'll use the MAKEDATE function. The MAKEDATE function lets us combine separate fields into a date by. We simply need to bring in each piece in the riht order. We'll drag in Year, add a comma, then Month, a comma, then Day, and close parenttheness. The calculation is valid, and we'll click ok.
Now we have a date that Tableau can recognize.And we have all the drill down and functionality that we expect with dates.


How to make your career secured and safe with Business Analytics training?

If you want to accomplish popularity in data analysis field, you can quickly join any renowned company who deal with this sort of services.As you know life is all about selecting the proper path and along with that one of the significant parts is to select the finest career options. Numbers of people out there who want to make their career smooth and appropriate can easily go with this data analytics course. When you are too confused to select the proper path in life, all you need to do is consulting with some advisors who are in this commercial field. If you want to make your career in the data courses, you can deal with those companies who offer such interesting services and conveniences.

Why join Excelr?

Though, there are numbers of a company available in this recent marketplace which offers some great services related to a business field are the one who makes their trainee an amazing business person. Ample of youngsters want to achieve something best in their life, and that is why they join Excelr. It is one of the pioneering training centres in this recent world.

It delivers you numerous types of courses along with relevant handling methods as well as equipment. They also organize the excellent walk-in-interview along with the learners related to these specific courses. The learners can easily meet some leaders of other companies. They declare about the present and latest technologies to their trainees. Besides that, they also declare about the latest trend and condition of the business marketing in recent times.

Knowing about the course

This company recruits several excellent faculties who can match up their work easily. Along with everything the professional recruiters also guides their trainee in every possible way. Business Analytics training is one of the amazing courses that ample of youngsters want to do in future. Besides, a company provides certain assessment projects to their trainees as well as they also help them to learn it properly. If they get any weak students in their organization, they also make sure that they provide only the best service to the students. They always try their best and put some best effort to make the trainee professionals.

They also support their clients in each and every presentation. The online reporting, data analyzing along with e-learning and additional services are the consistent courses to do. Their instruction modes have the modernism, and that gives the learners the complete information of the courses.

Advantage of this certification                    

If you are too confused to get to learn about the business method, you can easily join Business Analytics training for a certain course. The organisation provide ample of knowledge and the way to accomplish the skill in every possible way. If anyone has an interest towards this certain job, they can deal with them.

Some professional and experienced trainers are there to give you the right information about the field. You will be able to gain excellent data and info about this field so that you can easily utilize it in other companies. They are one of the renowned and popular training centers across the world. Along with the development of the market value, they are also increasing their popularity among clients.


Excelr Hybris Online Training Perfect for Ecommerce Development

Hybris is an out of the box ecommerce development tool as well as having features for ecommerce managemnt, data management and order management. It is fast becoming the platform of choice for ecommerce development and enterprises engaged in offering e-commerce development would surely benefit by having trained Hybris experts.

Niche Techincial Training

 Why Hybris?

Excelr Hybris online training is the perfect way to go. Hybris is the big thing in e-commerce development due to its feature sets. Based on Spring JEE it is scalable and easy to learn provided one has a background in Spring Jee and basics of e-commerce. Hybris includes a PIM Module too besides a flexible promotion module right out of the box. There are lots of other features but to sum it up one can say it is an outstanding multi-store, a multi-site and multi-lingual platform for today’s e-commerce development. Hybris is versatile yet complex with its architecture and configuration options.

 Why Excelr for Online Training in Hybris?

Online Hybris Training turns out experts who can build on demand ecommerce solutions. Excelr focuses on live, interactive online training. Training is conducted by certified and experienced Hybris professionals. What makes online training in Hybris with Excelr so special is that we have broken down Hybris into various modules and customise training to suit objectives of candidates and their role in the corporate set up.

Why Excelr

 This way they learn precisely what is most relevant to their job areas and can become productive from day one. There is no waste of time or effort. Further, Excelr online courses are self-placed so there is no pressure to complete modules within set periods. Learners have access to videos and materials online besides access to tutors who can resolve any issues.

 Hybris online training course is broken down into components like environment setup, type systems and models, management console, PCM basics, import-export, service layers, workflows, validation and accelerator. Candidates can pick and choose modules of relevance to them and our trainers focus on 100% transfer of knowledge with theoretical and practical training sessions that can be undertaken every day, over the weekends or whenever convenient.

Why ExcelR

 As the number one global and Indian online technical training institute for corporate personnel, Excelr believes in turning out experts who contribute to a company’s growth. The initial phases post online training can be difficult which is why Excelr always offers full support.

 Even individuals with IT qualifications can join Excelr Hybris online training or choose to step into any of its centres in Pune, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai or Bangalore but online training is found to be far more convenient for a global audience. The world is shifting to e-commerce and open source platforms for e-commerce have several shortcomings that Hybris does not. It is also profitable for enterprises to make use of Hybris for e-commerce development because they can offer a number of advanced features to their clients. Training in Hybris for their personnel gives them an edge in the highly competitive IT segment.


Knowing the requirement of the PMI ACP certification training in Bangalore

When you are in a track to choose your path, all you require to do is just select the best one for you.The PMI basically stands for the Project Management Institute. It is the manager or supervisor of a PMP or Project Management Professional certification. The PMP accreditation is the all-round renowned confirmation as well as the world’s top most accreditation for the project management. Numerous institutions currently apprehend that projects are their utmost pledge to the business line.  In addition to this, the awareness and concentration for the project specialists develop each and every year.

What is the PMI Certification?

This specific accreditation was completely planned to pledge that the specialists can easily show both of their commitment to and skill and knowledge in their field and also the prescribed procedures of the business. They basically concentrate on the experience, competency and training of the accreditation holders. The main objective of this entire project is to gather all the members of the project to a certain point where the works can easily surpass the expectation.

Why ExcelR

A fascinating note is that around the one-fifth of the GDP of the entire world is spent on numerous projects. In fact, just in this manner, this is not amazing that administrations, governments, as well as various associations are progressively mindful of the increasing expenses along with the dangers that are associated with numerous projects. This is in everybody’s utmost benefits to see that the persons who just handle as well as work in project events are skilful and trained experts.

The PMI PMP credentials and others

The PMP qualification is considered as the most high-status authorization amongst others. In recent times, people are quite fascinated on joining the high-class institution to set their career. You can easily get renowned PMI ACP certification training in Bangalore.

PMI Agile Certified Practionier

Advantages of gaining this course

Dealing with the PMI ACP certification training in Bangalore you will be able to get the great placement over several renowned companies. This course is recognized across the world. In an addition to this, a man will definitely have the capability to demonstrate to expected bosses that they easily hold the right competences to lead any group and also deal the projects in a skillful way. This specific course is appreciated for each and every kind of business start from Telecom to business administration, as they assist in boosting the aptitudes of experts.

Being exclusive from the rest is one of the important advantages. One of the important points of the interest of just getting a program authentication is that you will easily get the placement at any kind of preferred company. They will be easily fit for displaying their capability and aptitude to just handle various ventures much better due to the appreciated and broad course material that can easily help in increasing their directorial attitudes to an unbelievable degree and also help them to lead groups in the vastly better-quality manner and do projects naturally. Such a credential will upsurge the value of their resume as well as be the expert in the field can be indication and evidence that they are totally skillful for being the project manager.


How Sisense Certification Helps Businesses Stay on Top

These days businesses rely hugely on intelligence derived from terabytes of data. It is a way to keep ahead of the competition and anticipate trends in marketplaces. Handling large chunks of data or deriving meaningful intelligence from such diverse sources of data is by no means an easy task. Business managers are less concerned about how data is handled in the background and are more interested in using tools that handle all such data through an easy to use dashboard and allow in-depth analytics. Sisense, a recently introduce BI tool, is precisely what managers and businesses need to drive business founded on intelligence.


Unlike Hadoop and other big data handling tools, Sisense is perfectly at home on single computer units and handles large data sets through a columnar approach and optimum use of system memory and CPU. In short, it does require expensive hardware to run Sisense. Through training that leads to Sisense Certification, business executives can take data snapshots through elastic tube and the dashboard gives managers the flexibility to create charts and metric views. Data can be exported to Excel, images and PDF and it has a scriptless user interface. What is of importance for business managers is that they can ask questions and Sisense delivers answers. Sisense is powerful, easy to use and carries out data analysis in real time, which is what businesses need. It does have a few cons but the pros far outweigh them leading to Sisense winning the Best Business Intelligence Software Award for 2016.


Why Excelr

Like any other sophisticated business intelligence tool, Sisense is complex and does need systematic training for a user to become fully proficient. Excelr has a customized approach with modular courses that are designed to suit enterprise goals and to empower employees to handle their specific tasks with exceptional efficiency. Certification means the person who has undergone training is fully conversant with this top notch business tool and certification after training through Excelr means the candidate can pass any test and become proficient in Sisense.

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Big data is what powers businesses these days and analysing terabytes of streaming data in real time is resource intensive as well as time-consuming and expensive. Sisense certification and use of Sisense does away with the expense and hassles and puts at the disposal of enterprises a cutting edge tool to take their business to the next level. They can analyze trends in real time and pass on derived intelligence to appropriate sections such as production, inventory and sourcing to cut back on purchases or buy new materials and ramp up production or design or modify existing products according to market indicators based on analysed data.

Modes of Training

Excelr Sisense training and certification programs are conducted by trained professionals with years of industry experience and give candidates precisely what is needed to make them experts in the shortest time. This and the backup support after training sessions, whether in-house or online, make Excelr the preferred Sisense training option and gives businesses that valuable trained manpower the can use to get ahead.


Excelr’s Red Hat Satellite Server Corporate Training Makes Managing Networks Safer and Secure

Red Hat Satellite Server is one of the finest tools to manage networked red Hat Enterprise Linux environments with a host of modules available through an easy to use interface for administrators.

The interface is easy to use but even then one must know underlying features in order to leverage the power of Satellite server. It has quite a few modules that a network administrator must know and be proficient in using. One such module is Insights, built into the Satellite ecosystem. Insights helps network administrators diagnose systems and security exploits, stability and performance degradation.  Then there are features that allow adding and removing locations, creating and removing life cycle environments, managing users and user groups which includes setting granular permissions, maintenance, reporting, identity management, external authentication and lots more. Not all network administrators need to become thoroughly experts in all modules of Satellite server but it does pay to be fully aware of the capabilities in order to use them when the need arises. For a network administrator in a corporate environment to become expert training is essential to help him fulfill his duties. This is where Excelr steps in and offers corporate training in Red Hat Satellite Server.


Excelr Satellite server training is a custom based solution that keeps a network administrator’s actual needs foremost and develops custom modules that help such trainees become proficient in precisely those areas that are functional and of daily use to them. Why need based training instead of a fuller training? There are reasons?

  • Not all executives in charge of managing Satellite server are tasked with overall responsibilities and their job responsibilities may cover a few areas.
  • They face hurdles and need to acquire knowledge pertinent to their areas of work.
  • They do not have time to learn everything about Satellite server.
  • Becoming proficient in what they do on a daily basis builds confidence to encourage them to learn more in which case they can access other modules of Excelr Satellite server courses online.


Excelr Red Hat Satellite server professionals go beyond in analyzing the job functions

Excelr provides customized training keeping all these factors in mind. Excelr Red Hat Satellite server professionals go beyond in analyzing the job functions and including not only modules that the trainee needs to learn but also relevant ones like Insights mentioned above, that is bound to be used or be useful for network administrators as a key to keeping networks secure.

The training may be taken online, may be conducted in premises or trainees may walk into any of Excelr’s centers of excellence in Pune, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai and learn only what they wish to know for the moment. Sessions may be over but Excelr support continues because real life situations can be complex and there are issues where such freshly trained executives need help. Excelr is there to help. This is what makes Excelr so special when it comes to corporate training programmes. Giving best returns on investment is one side of the coin; solid support is the other part.


Why you will choose ExcelR for Big Data Analytics training in Hyderabad?

If you are really looking for the best course to make your future a bright one then you must go for this course at the earliest.Educational courses are becoming one of the most important factors in the life of students to choose. Apart from medical and engineering, there are many courses that have to be focused into. These courses are designed in the way that it will help in getting a young student in achieving their dream. Now the main factor is from where these courses are done? If you follow the internet, you will get many names and different cities. But for the students, it is best to do the professionals courses from Hyderabad. Hyderabad is the educational hub of India, and it is great to have a certificate on a vocational course from that city which is hugely in demand.

A look into the course

There are many courses available for the people who want to start big in their future life. Among the courses that have been striding the education market Big Data Analytics training in Hyderabad is gaining the leading position. This is one of the advanced course that has been designed in such a way that it will help people to assemble and record the data that are huge. This advanced course will help the young minds in their future days in the dispensation, collection and the management of the big data that really makes a problem in the Multinational Companies.

In the present day, the companies that trade in the online internet platform have to deal with the larger data bases. In the conventional tools, it is not possible to capture those data. Therefore the people who have been associated with the data management along with dispensation and management have to face problems. This course by the Big Data Analytics training in Hyderabad will help the young people to know the use of the electronic gadgets that have been used to manage the data along with dispensation and collection. This is what now the multi-millionaire companies are looking in the market.

This course is for every single individual

Parents are very cautious about the future of their children. They used to involve their children in those courses that have a pleasant future. This course is for those parents who are very caring about their child’s future and also for those students who are on the lookout for the best course in the market. If you want to go for engineering or medical, then you must have a science background.

But there is a difference in this course. There is no such demand to do this course. Anyone can do the course from any background. This course is the future course that has been designed in such a way that people can make the full use of it. This course is guided by the professors who have a great name in the field of education. In an actual sense, these courses are guided by those famous people who have designed it, and they have the knowledge that how this course works and what should be provided to the students for the course.


Excelr Pentaho Online Training Makes a Difference to the Way You Use Big Data

Big data is big, stupendous and mammoth in every sense. It is also the key that will make a difference to organizations. Those that make use of big data are likely to forge ahead.  Handling big data involves IT software and hardware challenges but Pentaho makes it easy.


Pentaho Online training courses are geared to the needs of executives

Pentaho from Hitachi is one of the finest analytics and data integration tool that accelerates big data tools like Hadoop and NoSQL as well as IoT, besides allowing ease of access to data and blending data from diverse sources. Its embedded analytics allows better insights and reports that can be the basis for decision-making. All this is done through an easy to use dashboard. However sophisticated a tool may be, it ultimately comes down to the user and his familiarity with the features of Pentaho.

Excelr understands how complex Pentaho is and why those who handle Pentaho environments need to be experts at what they are doing in order to extract value. This is why their Pentaho Online training courses are geared to the needs of executives for whom IT is the secondary concern but its use for business is of primary interest. Its BA1000 business analytics program is geared to give business executives a thorough training in concepts underlying Pentaho and take them forward towards becoming experts in the use of business intelligence derived from big data.

Why ExcelR

Excelr’s online training in Pentaho does not follow a regular schedule or a single course pattern. Needs of executive and organizations they work for vary. By offering a structured, modular course designed around the immediate requirements, Excelr delivers better value in a shorter time. Those who undergo such training online can do so at their convenience and pursue a topic in detail with the help of expert professionals. A user may be interested in learning how to bring together diverse data sources and derive intelligence that will help in making business dependence. Excelr teaches executives what they wish to know and what will be of help to them. This is why its online Pentaho courses are so popular and sought after worldwide.

Modes of Training

Pentaho training online is not just for executives; those with business qualifications can hope to get into better-paying jobs in larger corporations if they undergo systematic training. In this case, Excelr offers personalized training online and covers virtually all modules in a phased manner. For such trainees, everything from data integration to analytics to visual analysis becomes child’s play. In fact, one of the good features of Pentaho is its reduced reliance on IT and more on a visual approach that makes it fun to develop geo maps, heat grids and other forms of visualization. Such executives can pursue online courses or walk into any of Excelr’s centres in Pune, Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai. Each trainee goes on from the basics to advanced modules in a phased and structured way. If and when he does start work, he can expect continuing support in the resolution of any issues he faces when using Pentaho. This is what makes Excelr so unique.


Nurture Your Dexterity and Reap Profusion of Success by Undertaking the Business analytics course

Business thrives over the correct comprehension of the data associated with it and also on the rightful interpretation of the changing and contemporary market vibes. If you want to be that corporate who brings nothing but profit to the venture, be a successful business analyst.

Biusiness Analytics

One of the fundamental requirements for a venture to succeed and endure is how well it understands the market needs and the fiscal vibes prevalent in the world. For this all is required is a thorough research over the information at its disposal. If you desire to be a pro at this job, then you must know that this study follows a definite methodology. A certain streamlining is required for you to correctly decode the data available to you and thereby amplify the monetary dimension of your parent corporation.

Why the need for a tutelage?

A certified training about how to analyze the tactics of conducting triumphant business makes you all the savvier. Suppose you have a natural flair of understanding what are fundamentally beneficent for any venture and similarly about those which are harmful. But what if sudden changes in the global business scenario jumble up all your rules? A Business analytics course accurately helps you here. When you have a certified knowledge about the cardinal rules of economics and statistics, then quickly you can catch the approaching trend that is potential enough to change all the previous calculations. Moreover, when you are a certified one your predictions about certain risk factors and profits as well will come as sound suggestions to your authority. Having the know-how about which project should be implemented at that time and which will be not, turns you into the right decision-maker. When you have the deftness to scan all the novel monetary schemes and justly consume the perks of them for your organization, you automatically become the accomplished one to give the proposals of expan.The Benefits for you

Why ExcelR

When you come out with an acclaimed degree of business analysis, your career gets its serious boost. Everywhere in the corporate sector, you are in demand. It will not matter at which position you start, eventually with your knowledge; you will get your prospective upliftment. When you give the right verdict as to which is healthy and what is harmful, your value within the company increases, and in consequence, you scale up the ladder. Moreover, such a certificate also aids you with your goal of job changing. When you are a dexterous business analyst, you can shift from one corporation to another at any point in time. Further, at the old age, you also do not need to read the mundane retired life, since the skill of business analysis can patronize your endeavour of opening up your consultancy or working as a freelancer. Explore the portal of Excelr–Business analytics course and become the adept evaluator of both the risks and benefits of doing particular businesses. Your handiness with numbers and schemes lets you solve any riddle and ease the path of progress for all types of enterprises.

So think no more of what will be the best path to be a top-notch executive. Pick a course of business analysis and be that corporate Midas who knows the secret of perfection—not by magic, but by knowledge.


Excelr Red Hat Satellite Server Training – Comprehensive and Complete

Red Hat Satellite is a superb product with finely honed features that makes tasks of administrators easy besides improving performance. It has a provisioning module, monitoring module and management module that lets Linux administrators manage and handle thousands of servers and installations.

Red Hat Satellite server training for administrators

As it stands there are Linux professionals with very good knowledge of Red Hat but when it comes to the administrative part where Satellite is installed, they come up against issues. A visit to the forums dedicated to Red Hat and Satellite shows just how widespread the issues are about lack of knowledge of Satellite and ways of use. There are typical questions such as how to create application lifecycle and carry out patching. Some ask if Satellite can integrate with HP or IBM. There is the basic question as to why one should use Satellite when one already has Red Hat Linux Enterprise, which shows a lack of knowledge of Red Hat Satellite is and all that it can do. There are questions about security and restrictions in Satellite and how to devise workarounds. Some people want to know if it can manage virtual instances. This shows a lack of knowledge about Satellite and how it can be used for infrastructure management. This is why Excelr recommends Red Hat Satellite server training for administratorsworking in Linux environments and also for IT graduates who may wish to make a career in the Linux direction.

Excelr has an open approach to training in Satellite server. Full cognizance is taken of the fact that some IT graduates may have just passing familiarity with Linux while others may have advanced levels of knowledge but relatively less experience of managing and handling Linux infrastructures. Excelr training is in the form of modules ranging from basic to advance. Students who join Excelr’s online global or in-class training (available in Pune, Hyderabad, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Mumbai) are tested for their knowledge level and are recommended the most suitable starting module from where they can go higher up the scale of knowledge. Working professionals are just as welcome to pursue Red Hat Satellite training as are fresh graduates. In the event a working professional completes the course and makes use of his knowledge on the job but has issues, he can always obtain assistance from Excelr’s experts.

Modes of Training

One thing is certain. Once students complete Red Hat Satellite Server courses at Excelr they need no longer have questions for which they must post online to get assistance. They become fully knowledgeable and in case any assistance is needed Excelr’s Red Hat expert is always there to help.

Should IT graduates opt for Red Hat and Linux training? It is felt that since businesses are veering more towards open source, it pays to specialize in Red Hat and it’s Server package because there are good chances of obtaining employment and advancing careers the Linux way. Excelr systematically trains people who are already working in such environments to gain higher levels of expertise and prepares IT graduates to take on challenging positions in future.


Time Series Forecasting Using ARIMA Model

Business Analytics

Fortune tellers, Horoscopes and Soothsayers are always valued very high, as we are worried about our future and obsessed to know it upfront. 

Time series modeling/forecasting are scientific ways to predict the future. We try to estimate a dependent variable based on how it changed over time.

Time series data is collected in sequence and at equal intervals of time. Other types of data, wherein we ignore the effect of time, are called Cross-sectional data.

The conventional data models look into the relationship/effect of independent variables to predict a dependent variable.

In time series data we look at the effect of time on the dependent variable, means time is the independent variable.

We can use a simple linear regression model to predict the dependent variable using time. These type of models which deal with dependent and independent variables are called "Model-based forecasting models".

In few scenarios, we might not look into other independent variables effect on target variable. Models, where dependent and independent variables are same are called as "Data-Driven forecasting models".

 Time Series Forecasting Using ARIMA Model Time Series Forecasting Using ARIMA Model Time Series Forecasting Using ARIMA Model Time Series Forecasting Using ARIMA Model


Excelr Guidewire Online Training a Cut above the Rest

Corporate training is fast becoming popular as companies realize the value of empowering employees. It is no different in the insurance sector where Guidewire is so widely used to power their operations.




Guidewire Online Training a Cut above the Rest

Guidewire suite is widely used by property and casualty insurance companies. It includes everything from handling inquiries for insurance to policy administration, billing, claims management and underwriting. It is enhanced by data and analytics to help insurers analyze trends and stay on top. In a typical company, there are different employees using Guidewire’s specific features for their routine operations. The software itself is user-friendly with a graphical interface and most employees use basic features without bothering about advanced features that, if used, would help them do much more. This is why Guidewire online training by Excelr Solutions is recommended to enhance productivity and employee efficiency.

Why Excelr

Excelr’s online training in Guidewire is customized and for good enough reasons. Consider what regular trainers offer. A typical course would take learners through the basics of Guidewire, teach them about configuration and understanding of various models, go on to organizing the claims centre and then best practices. This type of generalized training is of little use to employees handling specific parts like claims management, policy management or billing. Excelr’s custom online training addresses gaps and goes in-depth into specifics for each employee and his role. The result is that employees emerge better empowered and knowledgeable as well as skilled in what they have to deal with on a day to day basis.

Unlike others, Excelr does not believe in a one size fits all approach in corporate training if highest efficiency and productivity are the goals. Each employee’s role is analyzed and a custom package is tailored to bring him up to speed. This has two benefits. One, the learner is motivated to learn because what he learns directly concerns his areas of work. Two, he learns more, in-depth and at speed. The training is online so he can access materials any time he is free and proceed at his convenience. He can access a tutor anytime he faces any issue while learning and become perfect in the selected modules. Tutors also go beyond to transfer the knowledge they have gained through years of hands-on experience and give insights that are not usually available in a regular course. By establishing a one-to-one relationship with the tutor, the learner remains committed and gets to know far more than he would be he to attend a classroom-based course.

Modes of Training

Excelr stands out in another area. The course may be over. Support is not. It continues even after the prescribed duration of the course is over and the employee starts to use his newfound knowledge in his work. He may face issues in real life situations but with an Excelr expert available online to assist whenever required; he can take on challenges with confidence. It results in the employee being able to handle Guidewire fluidly and be much more productive, translating to benefits for employers. For employers, it is an investment with multiple returns when they engage Excelr for Guidewire training.


PMP Certification course paved a new way for the job seekers

If you are looking for the course that will make you ready for the market then you must focus on this course. Get the course done either through attending the class or through the online platforms in the form of distance education.

Are you looking for a job! Feeling frustrated to land the dream job. But unable to get that! Then now it is your chance to land the dream job that you have been looking for. After surveying the market and analyzing the facts of what the young people and what and what has been the requirement of the market a new job has been course has been introduced in the market. This course will help the people who are looking for the job to land their dream job. Unlike the other courses that are present in the market this course is different and professional. We will now look at the basics of the course.

This course will help the job seekers to learn professionalism

If you look at the market, then you will get the idea that the courses that are present in the market are all for the mere knowledge. These courses do not have the basics of learning the young job seekers of what professionalism is and how it should be maintained. But the PMP Certification course will help the job seekers to know about the professionalisms and how they should maintain it. In this course, the main thing that has been focused on is that what should a job seeker learn to present himself/herself in front of the HR of the company?

The most important aspect of this course is that it will help the job seekers to know about the projects that have been followed in the Multi-National Companies. Not only that this course will also emphasize on the Management training of the pupils so that they can get the ability to manage the things that have been followed by these companies. If you have followed the course structure of the PMP Certification course then you will also get to know that they also focus on the professional standards of maintaining the project and the management system.

This course has been designed according to the need of the market

Professional courses that have been studied in the institutions have been found to be created in such a way that students really do not have the idea of what to learn and what not to. But this course has been designed in a different way. In this course, the whole structure and the syllabus have been developed by the people who are from the industry or who has the knowledge of the present market scenario.

why ExcelR

Students or the job seekers will get to know from these people of what are the necessary things that they must focus on. This whole course has been divided into short period semesters so that the pupils groom themselves by their own which is the basis of the present day. Also, teachers are there to help them about the things that have been learned in the classroom. This course can also be done through the online process where the students or the job seeker has to register themselves through the official website.                            


ExcelrJaspersoft Corporate Training Helps Companies Derive Better Business Intelligence

Business intelligence is crucial for any enterprise to succeed in today’s competitive world. There are several ways one can derive intelligence. One is the old-fashioned way of manually compiling data into data warehouses and using data warehouses, data marts and OLAP, a process that is time consuming and cumbersome. Jaspersoft is the automated business intelligence tool much in demand these days because it does everything so much better and in a shorter time. Users need not have any technical background to derive high level of business intelligence through analytics, reports and an easy to use dashboard.

An advanced BI tool, Jaspersoft includes data visualization, analytics and reporting in an easy to use package. It is scalable and has a number of features that one must be fully aware of and be familiar with in order to derive the right intelligence. Jaspersoft includes data integration, an OLAP server, custom visualization, metadata, analytics, report designer, data analytics and multi-tenancy. It is one of the top BI tools out there. Speed in analyzing data and spotting trends is vital these days in order to get to the market first and Jaspersoft is a tool that helps carry out operations with speed and with the least hassles, even for those unfamiliar with BI and analytics processes.

Why Excelr

Excelr’s jaspersoft training for corporate

As with any tool, it can be feature rich and employ cutting edge technologies but it is up to the user and his skill to derive the best from it. This is where enterprises can face issues because even after installing jaspersoft, they find that users are not able to get the best out of it. The solution is jaspersoft corporate training to give each employee complete knowledge about the modules they handle. Excelr’s jaspersoft training for corporate is customized to bring about transformational results. The training equips employees with detailed knowledge about the features of Jaspersoft and helps them do much more and do it fast. Employers gain benefits in that their employees deliver more and contribute to the company’s growth.

Excelr recommends personalized training for corporate employees if the goals are to be achieved. Excelr’s method is to first analyze a company’s existing situation and the skill level of each employee as well as their job responsibilities. An expert in Jaspersoft from Excelr talks with each employee to know their expectations and then a course is designed to address all issues and endow employees with the crucial knowledge of Jaspersoft they need to do their work better and with better motivation.

Modes of Training

Why a personalized course and not a general coaching. Excelr, an expert corporate training institution, has noticed that such generalized courses are of little use and do not result in any noteworthy gains for the employees or for the employer. Custom training, on the other hand, gives immediate gains because it empowers each employee with the specific knowledge of specific modules they use on a regular basis. Once this is done it is easy for them to look at other features and expand their capabilities even more because Excelr support continues after the training.


Why is Apache Maven Training essential for the young pupils?

Pupils getting ready to get admission into the professional course must learn about this course. This course strides the market both nationally and internationally. Software development companies wait eagerly for those students who did this certification course.

Apache Maven

Professional courses, when taken by the pupils, must get the knowledge of the market value. Without knowing the market value taking those classes is really of no worth. This problem is found in most of the pupils. Through the internet platforms, they can quickly judge the market value of the courses they getting admitted to. In the present day, the courses provided to the students to get ready for the market contains mainly the business management. But still, courses there in the market that entirely differs from the other professional courses. These courses relate primarily to the software development that can be taken by students from a different educational background.

Why ExcelR

If taken the example of the Apache Maven Training then it is limpid that this course depends entirely on the technical issue. But the curriculum of the course designed in such a way that educational background does not bother for the pupils who do not study science in the formal educational structure. The essential part of this course that stands above all the other course in the market delivers self-learning. For the pupils who are not from the science background or not into an engineering college requires the help of the teachers at the beginning.

The best institute to learn this professional course 

If you want to learn this professional course from the industry experts, then you must search the internet and log in to the Excelr- Apache Maven Training website. This official website of the institute will guide you about the curriculum and the process of joining to learn this course. Teachers who have been employed there have years of experience in this field. The practical projects guided by the industry experts. This institute believes that that making a student ready for the market with all the knowledge and practical skills required by the Multi-National Companies is their primary duty.

Modes Of Training

The future of this course

This professional technical course helps the student to learn in managing the projects that are based on Java. This specialized software will streamline the building process that targets the developers. This software also provides quality information about the project and also helps the developers to know about the new features that can be added to it. The highlights this new software offers to the developer will assist in shortening the time in developing software at the initial stage. Pupils who have been to this course demand high in the market. Renowned Software companies hire those fresher who have a certificate on this course.

The age criteria of this course 

Age criteria do not affect the people who want to take the course. Not only the young pupils but this course developed in such a way that professionals in their leisure time join the course. This course provided through online teaching method which in many cases does not affect the office timing. According to the time of the students or by the professionals the time can be selected. Through online get all the study materials which in the future help to prove worth during campussing.


Get Engaged in the Tableau training in Bangalore and Be the Master of Presentations

With speed becoming the vibe of all the areas of life, the intention of people to read and know gets redressed day-by-day. You have to be a display expert and communicate impeccably to the world your vision through the visual medium.

Nowadays the Cardinal mantras of the global work culture are rapidity and understandability. How briskly you can entail all about your ideas and what proportion of people comprehends it decide your ability to dwell in the official global environment. Given to the temperament, nowadays individuals read least and see and hear more. Therefore the perfect way for you to interact with either your authority or your clients about the information at your disposal is by turning it into an optical exhibit. However, you have to be a savvy tech persona for visually showcasing the officious facts and business statistics.

Key Benefits

The Authentic Profitability

The technique of visibly perceptible information is formally known as the process of ‘Data Visualisation.’ This is the key factor in the development of business intelligence. The more progressive is your this agility quotient, the higher is your reputation and the demand for your business. When investors get a deeper view of your mercantile fabric through view-able graphs and charts, they feel it be more convenient to patronize your future schemes. Similarly, when customers can interpret your services and policies through visual fact-sheets, your transparency appeals to them, and they tend to rely more on you. Not only for your venture but achieving expertise at this particular system also aid you to prevail as a top-notch professional and cater to the corporations worldwide.

The Best Mechanism to Implement

The Tableau tool is predominant and perfect methodology to showcase data visually. Created by the organization of Tableau Software, this exquisite device transfers any form of information into attractive and communicative visual chronicles within few minutes. This transmission happens by a handy interface of Drag-To-Drop, and the records thus made are called by the name of dashboards. Whether be it an Excel sheet, a Web page or business Data Storage, with this tactic you can link to any textual materials and convert those into view-able statements.

The magic quadrant of Gartner considers Tableau to be the foremost quadrant of visualizing the statistics. It certainly augments the base of business by providing the in-depth view of the wider stretch of the fiscal and management records of a particular profit-making organization. In India, you can become an expert in this skill by availing Tableau training in Bangalore.

Modes of Training

The Edge over the Others

Tableau stands out from its competitors by the feature of :

  • Usage of Graphical User Interface
  • Ability to analyze the processed information
  • Accessible at iPad
  • Compatible with local servers
  • Facility of story map developing
  • Customer access from anywhere an opportunity for them to modify the data as and when needed by the end user format
  • Control over record sharing and protection of the shared document
  • Cost-effective in comparison to the features

Get your flawless streamlining at this technique by visiting the i.d of tableau training in Bangalore.

By providing numbers and operating demographics of your corporation in a transparent and precise pattern, carve the necessary niche for it in the big wide mercantile world. And if you are a visual presenter, then become, with the essential skill the blue-eyed one of your superior management.


What Is New in PMBOK6?

The Project Management Body of Knowledge or PMBOK as we commonly know it; is considered to be the gold standard for standard terminologies for project management; a vital resource for concepts such as work breakdown structure and the critical path method. PMBOK represents guidelines supervised by Project Management Institute; the nonprofit professional organization engaged in offering project management certifications. The PMBOK guide is now in its sixth edition published in 2017. We look at the evolution of PMBOK and at what is new in PMBOK6.

Project management best practices

PMBOK has become the go-to resource for project managers across a range of industries and most importantly for as prep book for those opting certification exams (PMP and CAPM). The guide is constantly updated to keep pace with the evolving market trends and changing project management best practices. User inputs and suggestions are routinely incorporated in successive editions; traditional approaches are combined with agile practices so as to make each new publication better and more valuable.

Created by active practitioners, the PMBOK is dubbed as the guide by project managers for project managers. The first edition was published in 1996 in a bid to standardize practices and information relating to project management. The second edition published in 2000 reflected the growth in the field of project management; as did the third edition (2004). The 4th edition (2009) differentiated between project documents and project management plans and expanded the concept ‘triple constraints’ to encapsulate six concepts; viz. quality, scope, budget, schedule, risk and resources. The fifth edition (2013) included evolving concepts such as adaptive lifecycle and rolling wave planning.

As the table below demonstrates, each edition increased the number of processes in a progressive manner and in some cases the knowledge areas as well.

Each successive edition removed redundancies and /or inadvertent errors of previous editions.

PMBOK 6th edition – PMBOK6

After significant editorial work and review of materials contained in previous editions, PMBOK6 was published in 2017. There aresignificant ways in which the 6th edition is enhanced; additions and enhancements include:

  • The new edition reflects market trends and emerging practices; particularly those that have been observed in the intervening years between the 5th and 6th editions and there is a lot of new content in the first three sections of the guide

  • The 6th edition places greater emphasis on strategic and business knowledge and includes four new sections on each knowledge area

  • There is a new chapter on the role of the project manager and pointers on how to lead projects effectively in this edition

  • What is also new in this edition is the addition of sections called Approaches for Agile, Iterative and Adaptive Environments. These are added to each knowledge area along with directions on integrating these into project settings.

  • Manage Project Knowledge is a new segment added to the Project Integration Management section. This is aimed at integrating lessons learned from one project into other projects for the entire organization

  • There is also an added tweak that offers project managers the tools to offer quality assurance from within their project; without assistance from an outside agency

  • Since time cannot be managed, the Project Time Management section has been renamed as Project Schedule Management

  • Since resources include more than just people, the Project Human Resource Management segment now goes by the more inclusive title Project Resource Management

  • Project Communications Management now encompasses the paper output as well as video communications

  • There are significant changes in the Project Risk Management segment as well; addressing overall project risk and not just event driven risk

  • The Project Procurement Management section has had an international makeover

  • The view on Project Stakeholder Management now shifts to Stakeholder Engagement in the 2017 PMBOK6.


Difference between Project (PMP) and Operations (IT Service Management)

The concept of a Project within the context of Project Management Professional certification has a specific connotation. The concept of Operations within the IT Services Management space also has its own specific implications. Differentiating the two would help shed light on each and clarify how the concepts are both different and complementary to each other.

Project (PMP)

A project is a means for organizations to achieve specific targets and to implement strategies. The definition of a Project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service”. The key words here are ‘temporary’ and ‘unique’. The word temporary points to the limited duration of a project vis-à-vis the regular or day to day working of an organization.The word unique speaks to a specific purpose, a product or service offered for a limited duration. In other words there is a finite duration for each project – with an unambiguous beginning and an end.

Operations (IT Service Management)

Operations within the context of Information Technology Service Management refers to a set of services and processes that are devised to look after the internal and external requirements of an organization or business; with particular reference to the technology needs of the organization. IT Operations as a concept is defined as processes and people “responsible for the smooth functioning of the infrastructure and operational environments that support application deployment to internal and external customers”. The operations could encompass computer operations, device management, library management, help desk services and network infrastructure management at competitive price points while maintaining standard quality.

Projects and operations – some key differentiators

  • The key point of difference between Projects and Operations is that projects are of a specific duration whereas operations are ongoing, permanent endeavors.

  • Operations are based on set procedures that are already in place so that operational activities are cyclical or repetitive in nature; producing more or less similar results each time. On the other hand projects are oriented towards specific results that may be a significant departure from regular operations of the organization in terms of the people involved, the processed employed, the aims sought to be achieved and even possibly the location or premises used.

  • While some projects could have certain repetitive processes or elements, what differentiates them from operational processes, is the unique output envisaged by the project.

  • Projects and Operations are also differentiable based on the objectives they seek to achieve. Operations are aimed at continuing the smooth and regular running of an organization: for instance the day to day production of goods or services or the management of accounts and maintenance of financial records. These are the nuts and bolts of any organization.

  • From time to time, the business or organization could be faced with certain specific challenges such as a new market demand, an expansion objective or other business /strategic goal. The existing processes and resources of the company may not be adequate to cater to these additional requirements. Hence there is a new imperative to create a project that is specifically designed to achieve the unique challenges /objectives.

  • Projects would typically have specific human resource and budgetary allocations and may be assigned time sensitive deadlines. Here as well, projects would differ from the regular operations of a business.

Areas where projects and operations converge

Projects may also be aimed at enhancing the operational processes of an organization so that these enhancements could then be incorporated into regular operations. Here the two processes converge. Projects aimed at cutting operational costs, streamlining production practices, or improving marketing initiatives and their outcomes are eventually incorporated into operations. In this way, projects and operations have their points of difference as well as convergence


Analytics playing a crucial role in Politics

Data analytics is moving out of research labs into real-time monitoring of people’s reaction to politics, policy, and rapid responses to crisis situations. It will play a significant role in changing (future) political outcomes – Amit Sheth

Modern India is a vast country that boasts numerous states, regions, languages, cultures, dialects, and distinct food and dress habits. The political system of Parliamentary Democracy imparts dynamism to this vast and widespread realm. Large sections of young, urbanized, and educated citizenry have enjoyed the outcomes of economic buoyancy during the last three decades. These constituencies are connected by smartphones, social media, the mobile Internet, instant messaging platforms, etc.

Concurrently, India’s democratic processes entered the digital age, a fact that was apparent during the last general elections. Digital technologies, Big Data, and data analysis played a crucial role in that general election. The gargantuan exercise in 2014 deployed more than 930,000 polling booths, 1.7 million voting machines, and used the energies of 11 million personnel.

Political parties and their strategists have realized the importance of mining real-time demographic and polling data. The various data points may include voter sentiment, mass emotions, myriad citizen concerns in different constituencies, popular outlooks in various states, etc. India’s political parties have moved to mine such data and create insights that influence subsequent political behavior. Among other things, political parties can use these insights to pull voter donations, convert undecided voters, enroll young volunteers, and organize resources to improve the effectiveness of electioneering activities. Data can also influence routine political work such as canvassing, phone calls, micro-messaging initiatives, and social media campaigns.

Political strategists and digital analysts can deploy modern software analytics to create detailed maps of voting patterns at the booth level. Data analytics can help these campaigners to paint a vivid picture of political winds, party supporters, and trenchant opponents in every region. Further, deep analytics can be deployed to investigate group communication behavior. This exercise can help politicians and their supporters to leverage appropriate technology to boost communication with individual voters.

Role of Analytics in Politics

“Our primary campaign was on digital and social media. We were involved in setting the narrative, changing the tone, and reacting to social media posts,” states a digital evangelist for a prominent political party in India.

Political campaigns underpinned by digital initiatives can consume time and resources. Significant investments are required for planning a digital campaign, years of meticulous data collection activities, collating information scientifically, and drawing actionable insights from various data streams. Consistent refinements can fine-tune various aspects of using digital tools in Indian democratic politics. Digital experts note that a data dashboard should be a useful tool in a political constituency. The utility stems from the fact that politicians can use the dashboard to understand the needs of a certain community or a constituency. Data from public forums can power part of this dashboard. However, operators must finalize the various elements that comprise the dashboard before the digital tool commences operations.

Certain political leaders have heeded advice from digital experts to pay attention to the patterns emerging from text analytics. This branch of data science pulls and analyses digital information from conversations underway in multiple social networking and micro-blogging sites. These tools can help determine demographic profiles and socio-economic perspectives. For instance, a political leader that is aware of the educational achievements of his voters can lobby for certain categories of government funds.

Alternatively, said leader can encourage specific industries to create investments in a particular sector with a view to create a targeted impact on employment patterns. These instances demonstrate the very real use of digital technologies in a large democracy like India.


What is IBM AIX ?

AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is “an open operating system from IBM that is based on a version of UNIX. AIX/ESA was designed for IBM’s System/390 or large server hardware platform. AIX/6000 is an operating system that runs on IBM’s workstation platform, the RISC System/6000.” Initially, the AIX family of operating systems went live in 1986 and went on to become the standard operating system for the RS/6000 series on its launch in 1990. IBM continues to develop AIX which is “currently supported on IBM Power Systems alongside IBM i and Linux.” The AIX operating system “is designed to deliver outstanding scalability, reliability, and manageability.”

Customized Training

  • ExcelR provides custom training packages that enable learners to perform everyday tasks using the AIX operating system. Training modules include instructor lectures and hands-on lab time in an instructor-led course environment. ExcelR also provides face-to-face classroom and virtual classroom environments for training.

  • The primary training course is designed for any individual that wishes to acquire basic AIX/UNIX user skills for an AIX work environment. The primary training is a stepping-stone to future instruction in AIX systems and administration curriculum.

  • ExcelR-designed training and instruction includes introduction to AIX, using the AIX system, documentation, files and directories, file permissions, shell basics, shell variables, controlling processes, customizing the user environment, AIZ utilities, AIX graphical user interface, and AIX implementation and administration.

  • Students and learners can enroll in ExcelR-operated instructor-led classrooms at multiple locations. They can also opt for instructor-led online training courses for self-paced online study.

  • ExcelR training modules include study of the architecture underlying UNIX, creating, removing, copying, moving files & directories, using files and directories, wildcard characters, input/output-re-directions, file/directory permissions, Vi-Editor, usage of filter commands, etc.

  • ExcelR training sessions also include live online streaming (WebEx or GoToMeeting) designed with the intent to promote one-on-one trainer and student interactions.

Why ExcelR?

  • Training modules at ExcelR provide online practice sessions, in-class seminars, and domain knowledge training and certification from qualified and experienced trainers.

  • Our corporate training packages provide learners with hands-on real-time project experience. These are conducted by certified industry experts and working professionals. Training packages are customized to cater to beginners and working professionals.

  • ExcelR provides relevant class materials, tutorial curricula, demo videos, sample questions, recommended books, and access to electronic publications.

  • Learners and students gain tangible benefits by working on live AIX projects. Our trainers provide AIX environment/server access to students with a view to provide practical real-time experience and in-depth understanding of training materials.

Post-Training Support

  • ExcelR ensures that every training session is recorded in high definition video; these are provided to learners for future reference. Top-notch study materials help students to explore AIX platforms from multiple dimensions.

  • Learners that have queries can contact dedicated support staff at ExcelR. We also provide email support and other solutions to queries. One-on-one sessions with ExcelR trainers can also be arranged.

  • The unique blend of hands-on training at ExcelR enables students gain productive skills to boost their performance in the workplace.

  • ExcelR also offers end-to-end support like lifetime e-learning access, assistance through WhatsApp messaging groups for clarification of doubts, access to free demo sessions, trainer assistance, etc.


  • Learners and students should be familiar with the basic concepts of information technology and the potential inherent in a modern operating system.

  • ExcelR can create group discounts for more than five participants in a training session.

  • ExcelR creates multiple training and assessment projects that thoroughly test learners’ skills and knowledge. The intent is to make the learners ready for industry.


What is sitecore ?

Sitecore is a global software company that offers software packages for content management systems and sophisticated digital marketing systems. The Sitecore CMS presents a desktop interface controlled by a role-based system. This desktop is similar in look and feel to a Microsoft Windows desktop. This makes it easy for new users to learn and operate the Sitecore system. Further, the Sitecore CMS incorporates multiple applications allow users to edit content, manage users, monitor campaigns, and set up workflows, etc. The Sitecore product is designed for “mid-market commercial or large enterprises, non-profits, and government organizations that require enterprise-level functionality, integration and scalability.”

Customized Training

  • ExcelR training modules help learners gain exposure on adding and editing the content of live webpages. The Rich Text Editor built into Sitecore CMS helps add text, images, and tables. Sitecore developers, content authors, administrators, business and technical stakeholders, and advanced learners can benefit from ExcelR training modules.

  • Our training packages give users an overview and hands-on experience of the Sitecore web edit interface and tools to create new web pages, update content on existing pages, insert feature images, create call outs and forms, etc.

  • ExcelR offers advanced training packages for website administrators that wish to create and modify web pages. The various modules of advanced training help users to explore the content editor mode, add feature images, edit page footers, use various Sitecore wizards, create publishing options, and design 404 pages, etc.

  • In addition, ExcelR works with clients to identify and understand specific training needs and requirements. The outcomes include customized learning solutions that address various budgets, training schedules, and different learning styles.

  • ExcelR can organize and execute instructor-led training classes at the client’s facility. This helps to accommodate different schedules and travel preferences. Our team of dedicated training resources can help create and reinforce the right competencies for the client’s Sitecore development team.

Why ExcelR

  • ExcelR attempts to understand and map the exact training requirements of individual clients. This ensures that our training modules and packages remain up to date and deliver targeted competencies to all learners.

  • The dedicated team of Sitecore instructors and trainers at ExcelR has a track record of delivering high impact training regimens.

  • Clients can realize higher ROI by investing in training modules designed by ExcelR. Our custom training schedules impart deep and relevant knowledge to attendees, thus enabling them to function expertly at their native work environments.

Post-Training Support

  • ExcelR offers end-to-end support like lifetime access to E-learning systems, assistance through WhatsApp groups for clarification of doubts, and access to free demo sessions, trainer assistance, etc.

  • We can arrange for refresher training courses subject to certain conditions.


  • What are the different types of training available?

    Classroom, instructor-led virtual online and E-learning modules are available.

  • Can Sitecore training be customized per user requirements

    Yes, we customize the Sitecore training based on the client’s specific requirements. Kindly contact us at [email protected]

  • What is the duration of training modules?

    The standard training is delivered in three days. For any customized training, the duration may vary depending on the requirements.

  • Are there any prerequisites?

    No pre-requisites are required to undertake training on Sitecore. Nevertheless, for Sitecore training, learners need some exposure in computer programming.

  • Will ExcelR provide certification on Sitecore?

    Our training enables candidates to pursue Sitecore certifications independently.


What is HL7?

The HL7 Organization provides “a framework and related standards for the exchange, integration, sharing, and retrieval of electronic health information.” These standards define the packaging and communication of information from one concerned party to another. They define the language, structure, and data types that power a seamless integration between multiple healthcare systems. HL7 standards “support clinical practice and the management, delivery, and evaluation of health services.”

Customized Training

  • ExcelR offers training modules and support structures that offer knowledge and practical information to learners from the healthcare industry worldwide.

  • Our training modules drive the successful implementation of HL7 standards. Training includes on-site tutorials and workshops custom-designed to cater to learners’ specific requirements.

  • ExcelR training modules offer certification-testing procedures that enable healthcare professionals to attain proficiency and expertise levels acknowledged by the healthcare industry.

  • Upon successful completion, healthcare professionals can enhance their marketability when they affix “HL7 Certified” to their professional credentials.

  • ExcelR offers learners the opportunity to undertake virtual training as an alternative to in-person training. This ‘classroom’ training system is driven by online webinars. It offers instructor-led, custom training through the agency of expert instructors and HL7 practicing professionals.

  • Training at ExcelR offers learners valuable opportunities to acquaint themselves with the technical specifications, programming structures, and guidelines for software and standards development of HL7.

Why ExcelR?

  • Dedicated trainers at ExcelR help learners, HL7 implementers, and healthcare industry professionals to gain insights into the structures, foundations, basic principles, and central components that power the HL7 system.

  • ExcelR works to improve the education and awareness levels of those that enrol for HL7 training modules. This includes the various processes that attend the development, adoption, and market recognition accorded to HL7 systems.

  • ExcelR instructs trainees on current and emerging trends in HL7 practices. The training can benefit all learners and implementers that intend to appear for HL7 proficiency examinations.

  • Our trainers can help learners get up to speed on HL7 control specialise certification examinations. This certification is gaining demand in the global healthcare industry.

Post-Training Support

  • Learners and healthcare professionals can avail support from ExcelR instructors once they have successfully completed training schedules.

  • The dedicated trainers at ExcelR can handhold learners as they implement key concepts that attend HL7. Cast studies can be created and examined to boost learner credentials. 

  • ExcelR also offers end-to-end support like Life Time E-Learning Access, assistance through WhatsApp Groups for clarification of doubts, access to free demo sessions, trainer assistance, etc.

  • Refresher courses can be arranged on request. ExcelR will vet requests prior to allotting trainers to execute such requests.


  • What are the different types of training available?

    Classroom, Instructor led virtual online and E-learning  modules are available

  • Can the Service Now training be customized per user requirements?

    Yes, we customize the ServiceNow tool training based on your specific requirements. Kindly contact us at [email protected]

  • What is the duration of training modules?

    The standard training is delivered in three days. For any customized training, the duration may vary depending on the requirements

  • Are there any prerequisites?

    No pre-requisites for undergoing training on service now. Nevertheless for ServiceNow scripting training needs some exposure towards programming

  • Will ExcelR provide certification on ServiceNow?

    Our training enables candidates to independently take up the ServiceNow certification course


What is Juniper Networks?

Juniper Networks, Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, USA. The company “ develops and markets networking products. Its products include routers, switches, network management software, network security products, and software-defined networking technology.” Further, Juniper Networks “ sells its products in over 100 countries in these geographic regions: Americas; Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, and Asia Pacific.” Juniper Networks offers its clients and customers various services, including technical support, professional  services,  and education and training programs. Juniper’s Junos Platform “ enables its customers to expand network software into the application space, and deploy software clients to control delivery.”

Customized Training

  • ExcelR training modules include Juniper certification, JNCIA-Junos, JNCIS-ENT, and JNCIS-SEC. Learners gain basic and advanced skills to work on future Juniper deployments, as also the opportunity to expand and refresh their skillsets.

  • ExcelR training modules act as a foundation for basic and advanced Junos courses. We enable learners to gain high-level certifications such as the “Juniper Networks Certified Associate.” This certification attests to a software professional’s ability to work with Junos OS, including competence in switching, routing, and basic networking fundamentals.

  • Participants in ExcelR training modules learn key components of the Junos software through practical demonstrations and laboratory sessions. Our qualified instructors and trainers enable students and learners to gain expertise in configuring and managing Junos OS and associated device operations.

  • Training packages designed for Junos certification cover topics including the fundamentals of Junos OS, basic configurations, routing basics, advanced operations monitoring and maintenance, networking protocols, different routing policies, and firewall filters, etc.

  • Students and learners can enroll for instructor-led classes to earn the “Juniper Networks Certified Associate” certification. ExcelR can also devise Juniper certification boot camps and skills camps that incorporate the latest equipment and teach their applications in workplace scenarios.

  • ExcelR offers Juniper Network Certified Instructors that have the benefit of real-world networking experience. This enables them to guide learners and working professionals to achieve professional goals.

  • ExcelR organizes demonstrations and hands-on laboratory work so that learners gain first-hand experience in configuring and monitoring the Junos OS and executing basic device operations.

Why ExcelR

  • ExcelR’s detailed training courses provide learners and students with the foundational knowledge that enabled them to work fluently on the Junos operating system.

  • Trainers help students and learners to navigate brief overviews of the Junos device families and highlight key architectural components of the software.

  • Key training topics include Juniper user interface options, a sharp focus on command line interfaces, configuration tasks for initial setup of devices, the basics of interface configuration, secondary system configurations, some basic routing concepts, routing policies, firewall filters associated with Juniper systems, and operational monitoring and maintenance of Junos devices.

  • ExcelR training courses are designed to benefit working professionals that configure and monitor devices running the Junos OS. Further, the training courses can accommodate individuals that implement, monitor, and troubleshoot Junos security components in the workplace. Further, network engineers, administrators, support personnel, and reseller support personnel that wish to gain JNCIP-SEC certification can benefit greatly from ExcelR training.

  • ExcelR trainers have access to deep reserves of domain knowledge. They are certified industry experts that have the skills and motivation to enhance the learner experience in significant manner.

Post-Training Support

  • The unique blend of hands-on training and instructor-led classroom sessions at ExcelR equips students with relevant and productive skills that improves their performance at the workplace. Our trainers hand-hold learners in the implementation of real-time solutions on different queries and different Juniper topics.

  • Training sessions at ExcelR are configured for live online streaming (using WebEx or GoToMeeting). This technique promotes effective remote learning and facilitates one-on-one trainer to student interactions.

  • Learners that have queries can connect with ExcelR on a 24×7 basis. We will respond with email support and other modes of query resolution.

  • ExcelR also offers access to lifetime e-learning support, assistance through WhatsApp messaging groups to clarify all doubts and questions. In addition, ExcelR provides demo sessions and trainer assistance in the post-training period.

  • Learners that have enrolled for training classes, but wish to cancel can do so within 48 hours of the initial registration. ExcelR will process refunds within 30 days.

  • Every training session at ExcelR is recorded live on high definition video. These recordings are shared with individual learners and students.


  • Learners and students should have basic networking knowledge and an understanding of the open systems interconnection reference model. Knowledge of the TCP/IP protocol and security protocols helps them absorb training sessions better.

  • Students that have gained certification at ExcelR can confidently update their work profiles and gain access to higher avenues of professional employment.

  • We can customize the Juniper training modules based on the client’s specific requirements. Kindly contact us at [email protected]


Solr Training

Solr (pronounced “solar”) is an “open source search platform built upon a Java library called Lucene. Solr is a popular search platform for websites because it can index and search multiple sites and return recommendations for related content based on the search query’s taxonomy.” Solr product features include “full-text search, hit highlighting, faceted search, real-time indexing, dynamic clustering, database integration, NoSQL features, and rich documents (e.g. MS Word, PDF) handling.” Yonik Seeley at CNET Networks created Solr in 2004. He developed Solr as an in-house project to add search capability to the company website.

Customized Training

  • Experts have designed ExcelR’s course materials for Solr Training. Our knowledge philosophy is that the best way to learn Solr is with hands-on training using a laboratory-based environment. Learners and students at ExcelR’s workshop training sessions can commence building with Solr early in these sessions.

  • Our training sessions are designed to help attendees build and administer Solr clusters. We cover basic Solr architecture, possible variations in Solr configurations, the multiple mechanics of SolrCloud, and Zookeeper. Training modules at ExcelR also cover JVM and memory management, security, and scaling search systems.

  • ExcelR instructors help learners and students to explore the capabilities of Solr by learning how to develop effective search applications. Search, data ingestion, and query mechanisms are some of the pivots of ExcelR learning. Training also explores Solr schema, advanced search relevance, and advanced techniques like graph queries and signals.

  • ExcelR’s Solr Training modules enable learners to acquire key skills such as configuring Solr, conducting field types and analysis, linguistic processing, and parsing rich document formats, etc. The training sessions are designed for professionals that are involved in installing, operating, scaling, and securing Solr clusters.

  • ExcelR can deliver customized training modules at onsite locations. Kindly contact us at [email protected]

Why ExcelR?

  • ExcelR training modules take students and learners through key aspects that help Solr architects build a successful enterprise search system. Our training modules are designed to allow students and learners to acquire and expand Solr skills at a rapid pace.

  • Our instructors and trainers provide access to high quality pre-recorded Solr Training videos, access to learning management systems, and self-paced Solr Training materials.

  • Certified trainers at ExcelR provide an interactive learning experience, access to dedicated cloud-based laboratories, 24×7 teaching assistance and support, fast track courses, and weekend training batches.

  • E-learning and instructor-led live online training options help learners and students to gain a comprehensive Solr Training experience.

Post-Training Support

  • ExcelR offers a unique blend of hands-on training and productive skills enhancements for all participants.

  • Every training session is recorded and provided to participants for future reference. High-quality training materials help students to explore Solr Training confidently.

  • Our team of expert trainers construct the training syllabus to match real world requirements for beginners and advanced learners.

  • Participants that have queries can connect with ExcelR on a 24×7 basis. We will respond with email support and other modes of query resolution.

  • Further, ExcelR can arrange one-on-one sessions with ExcelR trainers on request.


  • Training sessions at ExcelR are ideal for system administrators with limited Solr experience. It helps if participants have at least a year’s experience administering a Windows or UNIX operating system. Any competence in Solr Development or equivalent experience helps participants to perform better in these training sessions.

  • Developers with limited prior experience in Solr can benefit from ExcelR training.

  • Learners that have a basic grounding in computer languages such as Java, Python, or PHP can perform well at ExcelR training sessions.

  • ExcelR can deliver customized training modules at onsite locations. Kindly contact us at [email protected]


What is Workday?

Workday, Inc. is a software vendor that supplies financial management and human capital management software services housed in remote, off-site computer servers. The company’s cloud-based software packages provide management teams the ability to “oversee employee data, time tracking, procurement, expense management, and financial accounting functions.” Many universities and institutes of higher learning have adopted Workday because of its “ease of use, the flexibility the system provides, low cost of ownership, and focus on providing functionality specific to higher education.” David Duffield and Aneel Bhusri founded Workday in 2005.

 Customized Training

  • ExcelR can create comprehensive instructor-led, in-classroom training modules for Workday students, learners, and administrators. The training modules are designed to prepare students to function effectively in their work environments. ExcelR classes combine instructor lectures, social learning, live product demos, and hands-on training activities.

  • We include training sub-modules in the form of access to specific courses as a supplement to instructor-led offerings. These include short, topic-specific demo videos and professional service aids.

  • The ExcelR virtual classroom offers learners the benefits of live instructors minus the expenses and time commitments associated with student and learner travel. Students can connect to the virtual classroom to participate remotely in comprehensive hands-on activities. They can extend this module to include interactions with instructors and other students.

  • ExcelR training boosts the learning experience using videos, interactive exercises, and short quiz sessions. Learners can complete the curriculum at their own pace and apply the learning at their workplace.

  • ExcelR training modules also incorporate self-service features and just-in-time support materials designed from a unique training perspective for the benefit of learners, employees, managers, and recruiters.

Why ExcelR?

  • Our online training sessions help remote students to gain the benefits of comprehensive Workday training.

  • ExcelR empowers learners to undergo an aggregate of 50 hours of hands-on assignments.

  • Project-based scenarios help students and learners to gain insights into real world applications of Workday.

  • ExcelR instructors and trainers have a collective experience of more than 10 years in the various functions of Workday.

  • Our training modules enable session recordings with a view to boost the learning experience.

  • ExcelR offers students and learners the benefit of lifetime access to Workday course materials.

Post-Training Support

  • ExcelR offers end-to-end support like lifetime E-learning access, assistance through WhatsApp messaging groups for clarification of doubts, access to free demo sessions, and trainer assistance, etc.

  • Students and learners can gain feedback to live Workday projects and assess their progress through interactive discussions with ExcelR trainers.


  • What are the different types of training available?

    Classroom, Instructor led virtual online and E-learning modules are available.

  • Can Workday training be customized per user requirements?

    Yes, we customize the Workday training modules based on specific client requirements. Kindly contact us at [email protected]

  • What is the duration of training modules?

    The standard training is delivered in three days. For customized training regimens, the training duration may vary depending on client requirements.

  • Are there any prerequisites?

    No pre-requisites are required to undertake training on Workday. Nevertheless, prior exposure to computer programming helps faster uptake of Workday training and instruction modules.

  • Will ExcelR provide certification on Workday?

    Our training enables candidates to pursue Workday certifications independently.


RPA 101

RPA stands for Robotic Process Automation.

In recent times, this technology has evolved into a robust and useful approach for businesses in every industry. RPA is defined as “the automation of industrial and clerical processes using robots.” Human beings can train RPA systems and process robots to perform industrial tasks and workflows. This results in significant savings in terms of time utilization, resource optimization, and cost savings. Businesses that routinely undertake volumes of routine, repetitive, and manual back-office tasks can benefit by implementing Robotic Process Automation. The telecommunications, banking, insurance, manufacturing, retail, transportation, and utilities industries can harness the power of RPA to gain significant process advantages. RPA entails rules-based automation that should be premised on accurate programming and planning. This implies that a small error in programming can cast heavy impacts on industrial processes. Some of the notable points related to RPA implementation include:


  • Too many process changes – Robotic systems are best applied to mature processes that operate on consistent rules and can enforce system stability. These conditions enable robotic systems to attain high levels of process efficiency and can lead to better business outcomes. Hence, enterprises and businesses that create too many changes and frequently upgrade processes can confuse RPA systems leading to negative outcomes.

  • Unprepared organization – Prior to investing in large RPA systems, businesses must ensure their employees understand automation, its applications, and attendant risks. Employees need assurance that their livelihoods do not face a threat from RPA technologies. RPA adoptions gain true success when business operators embrace the technology and remain prepared for changes wrought by automation. Deloitte notes that “a robot can cost 10% to 20% of the cost of an onshore full-time employee in high-cost locations”

  • Eschew rapidity – RPA applications should be ideally applied first to simple industrial or business processes. Following their success, businesses can build in additional complexity and rules. This ensures that businesses are working on a strong foundation. Businesses can integrate different robotic processes in small iterations and then create an end-to-end solution.

  • Platform is the enabler – Businesses must select the correct automation platform to ensure the success of a RPA deployment. Many factors must be considered; these include ease of use, stability, support, system architecture, hosting requirements. These inputs play an active role in finalizing the RPA tool. Members within the implementing organization must understand key dependencies, the inherent limitations, and possible exceptions before they arrive at platform costs.

  • Focussed change management – RPA implementations require businesses to undertake a focused process of change management. An evolving process landscape may require multiple changes. This may stem from the many triggers related to systems, applications, process, policies, data, etc. In light of this, businesses must ensure that robots are managed in terms of both knowledge and skills. In addition, businesses must set in stone the manner of delivery entrusted to RPA systems. These represent key tasks in RPA deployment in any industry. Therefore, businesses must successfully anticipate and project the impact of RPA prior to arriving at a final design for implementing automation.

In recent times, RPA vendors are working to incorporate higher-order work into robotic processes. These involve the higher faculties of judgment and perception. Consequently, the vendors are incorporating cognitive technologies such as machine learning, speech recognition, and natural language processing in robotic process automation systems. Such developments may help to “automate perceptual and judgment-based tasks” which were once the preserve of human beings. For instance, Blue Prism and IBM Watson have teamed to extend the cognitive capabilities of RPA systems for the benefit of clients. These developments are helping enterprises to become fully digital businesses.


PMP is all about 5/10/49 – The Winning Formula for you

More and more of modern businesses pivot on project based processes now. As a result, the certified Project Management Professional (PMP) is increasingly valuable to employers and businesses all over the world. Is it any wonder that students and professionals with PMP certifications are so highly sought after? No matter what stage of your career you are, this certification is a value addition; as are the formulas, tips and tricks that help prepare for this.

PMP formulae

Various PMP formulae relating to project selection methods, critical path methods, PERT analysis with Beta distribution, project cost management, earned value management, estimate at completion and so on can help the student bone up on their study material. Understanding the 5 process groups, the 10 knowledge areas (9 in earlier editions of the PMBOK) and the 49 processes (which have steadily increased from 37 in the first edition to 49 in the sixth, 2017 edition), that make up the latest edition, is the first step towards learning the course material for the certification exam.

5 process groups for project management

A project will have varied objectives; however, the logical progression for each can be structured along similar lines:

  1. The initiation group defines the skills and activities required for the project. The initial teams, work phases, budgetary allocations, initial work orders, authorizations or permits needed (if any) are elucidated.

  2. The planning process group sets out timelines for reaching goals, defines scope of the project, optimizes individual skill sets for key project goals and creates the infrastructure for effective project management.

  3. The execution process group pays close attention to deadlines, enables communication within and outside the project team, plans team needs, maximizes workflow, addresses concerns and deals with issues and complexities that are bound to crop up.

  4. The monitoring and control process group explains how to keep the momentum going and meet initial project expectations; helps envisage and head off possible problems and offers quick solutions to problems that do crop up.

  5. The closing process group governs the timely closure of the project within its budget allocation. It includes processes such as creating reports and submitting the necessary paperwork, which in turn garners positive reviews and future referrals.

The 10 knowledge areas of project management

  1. Project Integration Management envisages the entire project as a unified whole

  2. Project Scope Management defines the aims, scale and boundaries of a project

  3. Project Time Management helps to create a schedule for the project as well as milestones for each task

  4. Project Cost Management governs cost estimations, while balancing project requirements with cost constraints

  5. Project Quality Management helps balance time and budgetary constraints with quality control

  6. Project Human Resource Management envisages hiring, process allocation and performance assessments

  7. Project Communication Management manages communications and keeps all stakeholders in the loop

  8. Project Risk Management helps foresee and manage problem

  9. Project Procurement Management envisages temporary hires, sub-contracting and possible overruns

  10. Project Stakeholder Management was newly introduced in PMBOK’s 5th edition

49 processes of project management

The processes of project management have increased steadily over the years and the 6 editions of PMBOK. What started out as 37 processes identified in the first edition in 1996 are now increased to 49 in the 2017, 6th edition. The first edition which spanned just 180 pages has grown in scope and content to become a voluminous 980 pages in its 6th avatar. While the number of broad process groups remains the same, the number of processes for initiating, planning, executing, monitoring & controlling and ending a project contained within the groups has increased and become more refined.
PMP Edition


The perfect FOUR – The collaboration of IoT, Big Data, and Cloud Computing & Machine Learning

Today top level executives are seeking answers to some basic questions with regard to business transformation and ‘disruption’. They want to know what their business operating model should be in the approaching 3-5 years, what they can achieve through technologies such as Cloud Computing, IoT, Machine Learning, Big Data Analytics, and other technologies. The future of work within the company is another question they seem to be asking often. The fact is that the technologies mentioned are empowering the organizations that have adopted them, and have the ability to transform the way companies approach operational issues.

Taking a Closer Look at the Perfect Four:

IoT denotes The Internet of Things. This is an electronic network of sensors, physical devices, industrial machinery, vehicles, machines, production plants, home appliances, jet engines, oil drills, and other items. Each of these is embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity options. This configuration allows all of these objects to connect and exchange data on a regular basis.

Big Data is a modern term that describes voluminous amounts of structured, semi structured, and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information. The term Big Data refers to “extremely large data sets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations.” Some of the acknowledged challenges facing Big Data include “capturing data, data storage, data analysis, search, sharing, transfer, visualization, querying, updating, and information privacy.”

Cloud Computing implies “the delivery of on-demand computing resources over the Internet.” This term also describes the act of storing, managing, and processing data through online resources, as opposed to executing such actions on a physical computer or network. Cloud computing involves “elastic and automatic infrastructure (with which) enterprises and service providers can provide agile and on-demand IT services on cloud platforms.” These include “private clouds, hybrid clouds, desktop clouds, video clouds, and all-in-one clouds.”

Machine Learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that “allows software applications to become more accurate in predicting outcomes.” The evolution of machine learning indicates that it can “play a key role in a wide range of critical applications, such as data mining, natural language processing, image recognition, and expert systems.” Experts note that in the past decade, “machine learning has given us self-driving cars, practical speech recognition, effective web search, and a vastly improved understanding of the human genome.”

How ExcelR is Collaborating:

ExcelR is offering a Diploma program from UNIMAS (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak) for serious learners as an opportunity to handle projects end to end. Mid-level executives and managers with coding experience can join these courses to gain a deeper understanding of modern technologies and apply the learning to the work place.

Innodatatics (a sister concern of ExcelR Solution) is offering a series of workshops. These workshops will help mid-level executive and managers to understand the importance of Big Data in business processes and the various tools that animate the technology.

The programs will blend theoretical sessions with practical exposure driven by hands-on exercises to reiterate the learning, quizzes to test learners’ understanding, and discussions followed by a final examination. These training programs are aimed at mid-level executives and managers that have knowledge of basic programming.

  • Level 1: Certification Program on Big Data (Using Hadoop & Spark) – The Big Data Certification Workshop will help learners to understand the importance of Big Data and its various tools. This workshop is designed to introduce learners to the various aspects of Big Data technologies.

  • Level 2: Certification Program on Data Science – The Data Science Expert Program is the next workshop designed to help learners understand Data Science tools and techniques. Topics will include machine learning, time series, forecasting, regression analysis, etc. The workshop will also explore the application of these technologies to solve complex business problems.

  • Level 3: Expert Program on Data Science – The third planned workshop is the Data Science Certification Program. This program is designed to help learners understand Data Science tools and techniques such as text mining for unstructured data, exploratory data analytics, data collection, probability and its distribution, regression analysis, and hypothesis testing, etc. The trainers will explore the various applications of such technologies to solve complex business problems.

Workshop trainers include Bharani Kumar and Sharat Chandra; both are experts in various information technology systems. Innodatatics, USA will award the certificate. Learners who wish to attain expert certification must first acquire certification in Foundation & Practitioner levels. Learners can complete each course individually and win certifications. Alternatively, they may apply for all three courses and acquire an Executive Diploma


The Agile Manifesto Made Easy

The agile approach brought about a systemic change in the software development;meeting requirement and creating solutions through collaborative effort of self organized, cross functional teams along with their customers and/or end users. Since agile approaches promote evolutionary development, adaptive planning and ongoing enhancements, this has helped accelerate deliveries and has made processes more flexible and responsive to changing requirements.

The agile software development manifesto was formulated by 17 signatories – self confessed organizational anarchists – at a ski resort lodge in Utah in 2001. The group of independent thinkers, many whose work put them in direct competition with each other, wanted to encourage professionals to think of “software development, methodologies, and organizations, in new– more agile – ways” and it was this common aim that gave rise to the agile manifesto.

The agile approach is predicated on sustainability in terms of the product’s global applicability and responsiveness to change of requirements. The accent is on adaptability, flexibility and team interaction to achieve better productivity. This approach is responsive to change and is quick to welcome the opportunity to evolve in order to remain competitive. Agile software is predicated upon 12 principles and 4 values or foundational beliefs for all agile processes:

1.Individuals and interactions over processes and tools

Interaction such as pair programming and co-location, motivation, self organization and effective communications are fundamentally important. Hence the manifesto envisages valuing individuals and the interactions between people rather than processes and tools. It is people who create requirements and it is also people who respond to those requirements. In the event, a people centered approach is more responsive and better able to meet those requirements than a tools and processes driven approach. When people are prioritized over tools and processes, communications become need based and fluid and no longer remain rigid or limited in terms of content and scheduling.

2.Working software over comprehensive documentation

Heavy documentation is effort intensive and quickly outdated; with limited usability. The agile approach envisages streamlining of the entire documentation process and eliminating superfluous or time consuming aspects of the documentation required for product development and delivery. Typically, the documentation needed for technical specs, interface design, the technical prospectus, test plans and the approvals required for each would be voluminous and would take up significant amounts of resource expenditure and time. The agile approach values working software more than documentation and views this is more important. In a nutshell, the focus should be on executing over planning

3.Customer collaboration over contract negotiation

It is important to involve the paying customer and/ or the end user into the process of the software development cycle right from the initiation. User feedback can help to create a more faithful and user friendly product and specific requirements can be incorporated at each stage of development. Agile advantages continuing collaboration over negotiations at the contract stage. The key difference between earlier approaches and the agile approach is the involvement of customer feedback and communication of detailed requirements incorporated at each stage of development and not just at the initial negotiation stages. The engaged, involved customer makes for a more effective creation process and a more user friendly product.

4.Responding to change over following a plan

Agile is a much more responsive and intuitive method of functioning as compared to traditional processes that closely focused on following a preset plan. Agile envisages a more ‘agile’, nimble approach where priorities and plans can be altered to improve and add value to both the process of development as well as the final product. The idea is to modify processes to dovetail with changing requirements rather than tweaking or limiting requirements to continue to correspond with the initial assessments.


Pareto Chart Creation Step by Step Process

Men follow their sentiments and their self-interest, but it pleases them to imagine that they follow reason. So, they look for, and always find, some theory which, a posteriori, makes their actions appear to be logical,– Wilfredo Pareto

The Pareto principle, as defined by Alfredo Pareto, states that an estimated 80% of the effects are an outcome of roughly 20% of the causes. Pareto charts, commonly used in project management and quality management systems, display vertical bars in descending order. These charts help businesses analyze the frequency of defects that attend a certain process, highlight significant problems in a process, and examine causation that triggers outcomes. Pareto charts can rapidly communicate a lot of information and data to large sets of people. These graphic creations can visually depict problems and the underlying causes that require attention. A Pareto chart position factors in descending order of frequency; this allows viewers to discern major causes that account for most variations in a process. Subsequently, analysts can focus their efforts to gain maximum remedial impact.

Below Are The Steps For Pareto Chart Creation

  • The first step in building a Pareto chart involves developing a list of problems or causes for analysis. This is followed by creating a measure to compare the causes. This measure can survey the frequency of a problem in terms of manifest complications and errors, the time consumed by the problem, and its consumption of corporate resources. This implies that time and cost figure importantly in a Pareto chart.

  • The next step is fixing a time frame for collecting all information depicted in the Pareto chart. We note that a finite time span is mandatory to enable an accurate analysis of problems in real life processes. Analysts must note the frequency of each problem (or issue); add these amounts to arrive at a total for all items.

  • The percentage of each issue can be calculated by dividing its total occurrence by the grand total and multiplying the outcome by 100.

  • Next, analysts must arrange the issues under the lens in decreasing order of the measure of comparison. The information must be arranged on the horizontal axis of a graph – from the highest to lowest values. Frequency, time, and cost values must be affixed to the left vertical axis. The right vertical axis must acquire the cumulative percentages for every issue depicted in the chart. The total of these percentages must equal 100%. A line graph connecting the cumulative percentages creates the final picture of all the issues and the attendant variations.

  • Pareto charts create visuals that combine a line graph and a bar graph. The charts typically have one horizontal axis and two vertical axes. The outcomes of analysis helps analysts to prioritize action points. An analysis of the information conveyed by the diagram helps identify issues that drive outcomes. Break points in the line graph represent the changes in causation, for instance. Emerging patterns in the information can further enlighten viewers.

  • Pareto charts typically illuminate the 80:20 principle. For instance, a chart may convey the information that 80% of the revenue accruing to a commercial enterprise emerge from 20% of its customers. In a chart with different criterion, it may indicate that 80% of customer complaints are sourced to 20% of individuals. Similarly, an automotive repair business may discover that 80% of the repair and maintenance time is spent on a fraction of the total problematic areas.

  • Pareto charts create an out sized impact on economic activities. These charts help users break a big problem into smaller components, identify the most significant operating factors, arrive at top priority areas for business focus, and allow a better use of material resources.


Chartered Accountants to engage in Big Data Analytics

The accounting profession in this country has been very progressive and has stayed relevant in this fast-changing and complex world. Big Data has emerged as the next big opportunity for this profession. Big Data Analytics is here to stay and Chartered Accountants with the ability to analyze Big Data can play important roles in strategy and decision making. Technologists foresee a great future in this emerging knowledge domain and call upon the tech-savvy CAs to plunge into Big Data Analytics and leverage the huge opportunities available around the world.

The concept of data analytics is well established but is being given impetus by the exponential growth in the volume of data that is available from myriad sources and breakthroughs in technology that are enabling savvy businesses to harness this data commercially. For example, how Uber identifies demand for taxis at any given time or location, and the generation of surge pricing when demand outweighs supply based on major events or incidents.

Big Data brought a new-found zest for accountants who are trained in analytics as well as traditional bookkeeping skills — financial reporting, taxation, and managerial finance. Being conversant with big data, as well as gaining analytical skills, provides graduates with an edge in the job market for the foreseeable future as big data becomes central to accounting and audit.

How to Use BIgData In Chartered Accounts

Big data and analytics are enabling auditors to better identify financial reporting, fraud and operational business risks. But the technology to integrate big data and audits is still in its infancy

Data analytics has re-engineered the audit process. Accountants can now test entire data sets, such as expense claims, rather than extrapolating samples. This has increased efficiency and streamlined processes, ultimately improving the quality of audits.

The main challenges were to understand audit requirements from data analytics, as there was no one-size-fits-all solution, and how the technology fitted into existing audit methodologies.

Beyond data, the accounting professional expectation in 2018 is to have a mindset that is no longer just reactive, e.g. focusing on tax and related events, but proactive and eager to assist clients in a trusted advisory capacity on a variety of business and financial areas.

Chartered accountants, particularly those working in small- to medium-sized practices, face competition on a number of fronts: from the big global firms at one end of the spectrum to bookkeepers at the other end. Predictive accounting may assist them to be competitive and add value to their clients as they continue with their professional development education over the lifetime of their professional activities.

Chartered Accountants are trained to be good with numbers and are trusted advisers because they have a fiduciary duty. Predictive accounting simply requires a mind shift from reactive to proactive coupled with a willingness to embrace data and technology.

Another important distinction is the increasing use of big data, e.g. social media data, to help make predictions when relevant. This differs markedly from traditional forecasting associated with time series and estimating an aggregate future value based on past data. The prediction has the ability to focus on the individual customer behavior level. It also hasn’t historically been applied to the Chartered Accountant and their ability to provide commercial and financial advice.

CA Kairos is an innovative platform designed in collaboration with Chartered Accountants. It is a new innovation initiative designed as a vital step in equipping businesses, particularly small to medium-sized enterprises with access to skills and tools to access big data in a meaningful way. The programme that will bring together a collection of work streams, systems and platforms under a single umbrella encompassing.

Kairos is an ancient Greek word meaning the opportune moment. Now is the time for Chartered Accountants to engage in big data and predictive analytics to provide clients with enhanced business advice. CA Kairos combines professional accounting expertise with education, analytics, and machine learning to help you to enrich client experience.

It’s about leveraging accounting data and predictive analytics software to find patterns in data that a Chartered Accountant can use to predict scenarios for clients in advance, helping them to maximize opportunities and limit risks.

The intent of Kairos is to benefit clients, by helping them become more agile and competitive. It is true that the larger accounting practices have been offering similar services. Also, the technology available from vendors and the open source community no longer requires each accounting practice to have data scientists with deep analytical skills.


Data Science Interview Questions – 1


Please find the following Questions for Data Science Interview Questions part 1

Point out 7 ways how Data Scientist use statistics?

  • Design and interpret experiments to informproduct decisions.
  • Build models that predict signal, not noise.
  • Turn big data a into the big picture
  • Understand user retention, engagement, conversion and leads.
  • Give your users what they want.
  • Estimate Intelligently.
  • Tell the story with the data.

Data Science Interview Questions123

Data Science Interview Questions2

Data Science Interview Questions3

Data Science Interview Questions4Data Science Interview Questions5Data Science Interview Questions6



Academia to Industry – The Transition

In industry, the skills we develop in graduate school, such as analytical thinking, statistics, communication skills, and tenacity in the face of adversity, make us a great fit for the role. But moving to industry from the world of academia can be a culture shock. Here are some of the differences between the two:
Industry moves at a much faster pace than academia — while academic projects can last years, industry projects typically span weeks or even days. This is especially true of smaller companies and start-ups with limited financial runways, which need to move fast and iterate quickly. If an analysis or experiment cannot produce results quickly, it might be best to rethink the design or drop it in favor of something else.


In the world outside the controlled environment of the lab, there are numerous challenges with experimentation. To name a few, it might be impractical to split users into treatment and control groups, random sampling might not be possible, or it might be tough to control for extraneous variables. For example, when testing the effects of an outdoor advertising campaign, we cannot randomly choose who sees the ads and who does not. In these cases, quasi-experiments like pre-post-tests, where we compare engagement before and after the campaign, might be the best compromise.

In academia, you might earn some points for using cool new algorithms over “boring” tried-and-true techniques. In industry, however, the only thing that matters is the end result. In fact, instead of being more impressive, methods that are hard to understand might end up being harder to trust. Employing complicated methods might also take more time and involve more risk if their effectiveness is unknown.

In academia, we need to follow best practices if we hope to pass peer review. In industry, with limited time and resources, some amount of compromise may be necessary to balance research excellence with business needs. If time is short or the experiment is costly, we may have to settle for a smaller sample size and lower statistical power.

In academia, work usually ends once we publish the results. In industry, after analyses and algorithms are complete, there is still the task of convincing decision-makers to use the insights to drive decisions. While academia already understands research is important, in industry, the rest of the company has to be convinced that experiments are worth the effort. Engineers have to spend effort and time to set up tools that make experimentation and data collection possible. Customer support representatives have to explain why users in A/B tests are seeing a different version of the product. For a data scientist to be effective in industry, the whole team has to embrace a data-driven culture.

In academia, your audience should understand all the stats jargon you throw at them. In industry, presentations have to be tailored to an audience that might contain stats experts and people who have never heard of a t-test. Be prepared to explain statistical concepts in layman terms. On the flip side, I’ve had to pick up industry terms, such as conversion rate, churn, organic vs. paid traffic, KPIs, OKRs, and CPM etc.

The term “data scientist” is so vague that expected skill sets range from running analyses in Excel to implementing neural networks in C++. Find out the expectations of the company you’re applying to work at, and see if it’s a good fit for your skill set (or what you’re willing and able to learn). Do they expect you to focus on data analysis, or produce more complicated machine learning algorithms, or set up the entire data pipeline? You might have to very rapidly pick up new skills beyond the statistical packages and programming languages you already know, and this is especially true if you join a start-up, where you’d likely have to play many different roles.

In academia, we’re constantly chasing the elusive p < 0.05, but in industry, failure to reject the null hypothesis is sometimes just as useful as observing a significant result. For example, if your experiment (for example an expensive ad campaign) ends up being unsuccessful, you save your team money, effort, and time by killing it in its infancy and not rolling it out more broadly. Furthermore, in some cases, we want to ensure that there are no significant differences in certain key metrics when testing a feature. Gradual rollouts of new features are common to ensure an absence of unintended adverse effects.
Of course, companies differ in their culture and approach to data science, and your experiences may vary. In a way, our journeys from a doctorate to data science are experiments themselves — with some trial and error required.


Data Science Interview Questions – 3


Please find the following Questions for Data Science Interview Questions part 3

Can we find the mode of heights of people?

Answer: Yes and No

Explanation:When the least count of continuous measure is clearly defined, It is possible to have a mode measure. However when the least count is not clearly defined and one can go upto infinite places after decimal then it is not possible to compute modes of continuous data to take this one step for the, one can say that is impossible to find the mode of continuous data as each value will be in queue.

Data Science Interview QuestionsData Science Interview QuestionsData Science Interview QuestionsData Science Interview QuestionsData Science Interview QuestionsData Science Interview QuestionsData Science Interview Questions


In demand skills in the next Decade

As organizations turn out to be more influenced by the interruptions of AI, biotechnology, robotics, ecological change, global connectives and the ascent of the remote worker, they’ll need to consistently adjust the job roles they offer. It’s not possible for anyone to completely foresee the future or what needs the economy and society may have in 10 years, so while you will most likely be unable to know for certain what your career in 2030 will resemble, what you can do at the present time is plan for the career ways of tomorrow.

Before you begin to outline your 10-year vocation objectives, you have to comprehend why and how these working environment changes are going on and what powers will have the greatest effect on organizations. In light of that learning, you can arrange for how to prepare yourself for work.

Organisational rearrangement affects the job demand
Organizations will turn out to be more adaptable and straightforward, with an emphasis on project-based connections and business maintainability. Leadership will turn out to be more even and shared as expanded social and external collaborations breakdown the conventional hierarchical model.

Important job roles:

• Project Manager
• Business Process Manager
• Operations Manager
• Business Sustainability Expert

An increasingly global and diverse talent pool shapes job creation
The workforce will turn out to be progressively multigenerational and diverse, while the workspace will turn out to be more adaptable and dexterous. There will be a need to change strategies, salaries, advantages and office designs, to suit the requirements of the new expert.
Important job roles:
• Talent Manager
• HR Manager
• Facilities Manager

Preparing for a connected world
As virtual gadgets empower work environment connections and communication to happen anyplace, at any time, job roles and careers turn out to be progressively reclassified to fit into these limitless models.
Important job roles:
• Internet of Things Specialist
• Information Systems Manager
• App Developer
• Cloud Computing Manager
• Cyber-security Manager

Adapt to rapid technological change
AI, robots, self-governing vehicles, and the Internet of Things is reshaping the universe of work into a biological system that requests a workforce who can deal with vulnerability, adjust to visit changes, draw in with computerization and build up their insight when certain abilities wind up out of date.

As indicated by a Pew Research Center report, robotics and AI “will penetrate wide portions of everyday life by 2025, with immense ramifications for a scope of industries such as medical services, transportation, and logistics”.
Important job roles:
• Data Analyst
• Big Data Analyst
• Fintech Entrepreneur
• AI Specialist
• IT professional
• Healthcare Practitioner

Collaboration between humans and robots changes the professional environment
As big data, analytics, and AI take over work that was already performed by people, new job roles will begin to open up. These will be centered on skills such as monitoring, creating, operating or designing automated and online procedures.
Important job roles:
• Instructional Designer
• App Developer
• Business Systems Analyst
• Cloud Computing Manager

Here are the 8 Top Tech Skills in Demand in 2018:
• Machine Learning
• Data Visualization
• Data Engineering
• Amazon Web Services
• Network and Information Security (Cybersecurity)
• SEO/SEM Marketing
• Mobile Development
• UI/UX Design
Education and an attitude of deep-rooted learning will turn out to be more crucial than any time in recent. By continually adapting new skills, refreshing your present skill set, or experimenting in different in enterprises, you’re prepared for the job roles of the future.


Security of Data is crucial for firms

How To Secure Your Company Data?

The limit of PC frameworks to store and process individual data has been always expanding for quite a few years. The measure of individual data being held in PC frameworks has expanded significantly on account of specialized enhancements, as well as in view of the rise of client produced frameworks, for example, online long range interpersonal communication and Web. As this mass of individual data increments, and as it moves into new handling situations, for example, Distributed computing and Huge Information, the subsequent security dangers likewise increment. Albeit generous work is being directed to blend and enhance safety efforts, the danger keeps on making enormous difficulties for all associations holding individual data.

Electronic frameworks are utilized both in the business world and in addition to our private regular day to day existences. The one thing that every single electronic framework have in like manner is the way that they are utilized to work with information. Electronic frameworks utilized by organizations work with a wide range of delicate and classified information. The frameworks that handle the information must be secured in an ideal way. With regards to maintaining a business of any size, the information is imperative. Information security is key for each business, paying little respect to its size.

Following are the key points that should consider when assessing the risks to data.

  • It is good practice for the management to assess data security risk and put in place appropriate policies, procedures and controls to reduce it.

  • It is important that staff understand the importance and relevance of data security policies and procedures

  • Physical security should be appropriate to prevent unauthorized access to Data

  • Credit checks and criminal record checks on staff with access to large amounts of data.

  • Repeating credit checks periodically to ensure that staff in financial difficulties, who may be more susceptible to bribery or committing fraud, are appropriately managed.

  • Systems and controls should be appropriate to minimize the risk of data loss or theft

  • One should know who the third party suppliers are, the security arrangements around any customer data that they hold or have access to, and how they examine their staff.

  • Compliance monitoring of data security should be risk-based

  • All data which is supposed to clear should be disposed of in a secure manner

  • Regular Data backups and security checks

To ensure a successful business, it is really important to be pre-equipped with the security tools and privacy enhancements that are needed to safeguard the most valuable asset – The Data.


The Top 10 trends that would drive the scope of Data Analytics

Digital transformation reshapes each part of a business. The effective Digital transformation will require watchful collaboration, attentive planning, and the incorporation of each department, as digital technology evolves.

Data Science may have turned out to be hot in this decade, however, its reality can be followed back in excess of several decades prior. A great deal of scholarly research occurred in data science at that point, yet there was no application in the market; it was all hypothetical and mathematical. Genuine change accompanied the blend of three positive circumstances:
· Interesting substantial datasets to influence it worth individuals’ time and vitality to deal with them
· Dominant machine learning algorithms,
· Potent computers to work those algorithms and evaluate the extensive datasets.

A few nuggets of knowledge in the field of data analytics and prediction, the requirement for organizations and people to be motivated and lit up in the realm of analytics the accompanying 10 trends would shape the eventual fate of data analytics.

Internet of Things (IoT):

It’s nothing but propelled remote systems. It’s normal to have censors thinking about various fit-into contraptions like Fitbit groups to the enormous jet engine. The internet of Things showcase is expected to develop an approach to advanced analytics and data processing, which have been important to decide outcomes from high volumes of data collected from the machine-to-machine communication devices.

Hyper Personalisation:

In the present advancing hyper retail markets, it has turned into a vital piece of promoting. The better you know a consumer, the better your odds of selling your item. The data from your telephone is consistently being examined to make your online persona and give services/items to you the way you would need it. With Google Home and Amazon Echo, this is going above and beyond.
In the present progressing hyper retail advertises, it has been able to be a critical segment of displaying. The way better you know a customer, the prevalent your odds of offering your thing (or offering through your channel) are. The data from your telephone is constantly being analyzed to make your online persona and give administrations/items to you the way you’d need it. With Google Domestic and Amazon Resound, normally going a stage progress.

Artificial Intelligence:

While this has been around, again, it is diverging towards Artificial intelligence, which is an elective conceptualization that spotlights on AI’s assistive part, stressing the way that it is intended to improve human intelligence instead of supplanting it.

While a modern AI program is surely equipped for settling on a choice after analyzing patterns in substantial data sets, that choice is just on a par with the data that people gave the programming to utilize. The decision of the word augmented, which signifies ‘to enhance’, strengthens the role of human intelligence plays when utilizing machine learning and deep learning algorithms to find connections and take care of issues.

Machine Intelligence:

It’s fundamentally the hypothesis and development of computer systems is to have the capacity to perform tasks, regularly requiring human insight. It frequently alludes to machines that learn yet are lined up with the natural neural system approach.

Augmented Reality:

This will empower better performances of organizations with the assistance of available information. This segment has proceeded on from simply being utilized by the gaming business. The current dispatch of Apple ARkit has now made it conceivable to create AR applications in bulk and furthermore given the power of AR to iPhone clients. Development and growth of Google’s Tango will additionally support it.

Behavioural Analytics:

This supports in utilizing conventional physiology to help in advertising to people. It is accepted to be a compelling tool to comprehend human behavior in controlled conditions.It empowers to turn normal customers to exceptionally power users.

Behavioral analytics has applications beyond that of marketing and client intelligence also. One can utilize sensor data to track traffic patterns, to know whether icy stockpiling chains have been broken or medication has been negotiated amid shipments.

Graph Analytics:

It’s an arrangement of analytic tools used to decide quality and bearing of connections between objects in a chart. By mapping connections among high volumes of very associated data, graph analytics opens more clever inquiries and creates more exact results. Some of the potential business utilize cases for graph analytics include:
·Conducting research in life sciences, including medical research and ailment pathologies
·Applying influencer analysis in informal network groups
·Optimising routes in the airlines and retail and assembling enterprises and also for supply dissemination
chains and logistics
·Detecting monetary crimes

Journey Sciences:

Successful in understanding the shifting data, its science is connected to a voyage of a client or patient, or worker or a machine. Borne clarifies, You gather information to take the way, and those data focus give you data about what’s occurring, where it’s going, what you can do to anticipate the result, and furthermore comprehend conditions and setting to which some of those things happened, and afterward how you can transform it to get positive results. In particular, client travel for purchasing your item and patient excursion winding up in a specific infection.
This eventually causes you make client personas.

The Experience Economy:

It’s an economy where associations reconsider and shape client involvement in a way that makes an important event.
The ascent of the experience economy is a standout amongst the most critical worldwide patterns in advertising. As indicated by Zoe Lazarus, Global Future and Culture Planning Director at Diageo,
Presently, like never before, purchasers want special, unconstrained and immersive amusement wherever they are. They need multisensory experiences, beyond sight and sound. Nonetheless, they would prefer not to be limited to particular settings or times for their stimulation, and hunger for encounters that say something unique regards to them, which they can impart to their friends and supporters.

Agile Data Science:

Agile Data Science is a lean philosophy that is embraced from Agile Software Development. It is an improvement system that adapts to the eccentric substances of making analytics applications from data at scale. At the center, it focuses on individuals, interactions, and building insignificantly practical items to transport quick and regularly to request client criticism.

Borne concluded by asserting the necessity to be at the edge of data gathering in order to improve the anticipated result.


How do I get a Data science job?

Landing a position in Data Science is not tough but rather all you require is the skills to kick-start your data science career. There are few core data science competencies which are required for turning into a data scientist.

  • The Statistics

  • Machine Learning

  • Software Tools

  • Linear Algebra and Multi-Variable Calculus

  • Data Visualization

  • Software Engineering

  • Multi-Dimension Problem Solving

The skills we get at the colleges in 90% of the cases are not helpful. In real projects, these 4 data coding skills are required:

  • Python

  • SQL

  • R

  • Bash


Source: KDnuggets

Data Scientist not only does the managing of pre-cleaned data, also need to get enough experience in cleaning cluttered data. Aside from these above core abilities, the best course to turning into a data scientist is putting thought and exertion into developing a well-rounded portfolio is an awesome approach. ExcelR supports building a portfolio of data science projects in helping students to get their first data science jobs, and many students have done this effectively.

Here are a few strategies, for building a data science portfolio that will get noticed to get a job

  • A strong data science portfolio is comprised of a few medium sized data science projects to show the employer that you have the key skills that they’re searching for

  • The roles might not be called as ‘Data Scientist’, however something like Data Analyst’, or ‘Business Analyst’. Be humble and willing to do what it takes to get into the industry

  • Different projects can show different things. Here are a couple of various kinds of projects you can build: Machine Learning, Explanatory, Data Cleaning, Data Storytelling, Data Visualization, A factual idea or a machine learning algorithm

  • You should consider the kind of job you need while choosing what projects to add to your portfolio. As specified above, they shouldn’t be all machine learning ventures

  • If you have a specific interest in Data Visualization, you might add a couple of data visualization projects and possibly add some interactive visualizations to show your skills in that area

  • You must familiarize yourself with the promotions for the jobs you will go for – take a look at the skills they are looking for, and utilize that as a sign to select projects for your portfolio

  • A viable project isn’t doing some analysis and uploading it. You have to put time and exertion into making your project easy to understand and digest

  • Keep in mind that it’s possible that your readme is the only thing some people will look at for ‘selling’ your project

  • Be careful that within the process of hiring procedure, diverse kinds of people will look at your portfolio, and they will have distinctive levels of skill and understanding

  • Give a short outline of the aim and the skills it demonstrates, and provide an easy-to-follow link. Your initial application might list your portfolio ‘blog’ more prominently that generally you will encounter less technical people early in the hiring process, and more technical people later on, so

  • A portfolio is a greatly compelling way of acting as a replacement when searching for your first Data Science work.

  • Lastly, consider exhibiting your portfolio projects like a short-term contract as your portfolio is a prominent part of your application

As more people are entering into this field, getting into the top few percents requires not only skills but a considerable measure of time and some luck.


Importance of content in Digital Marketing

Content is the way of presenting your information to the audience in the form of text, video, and images. It is both interactive and communication. At the first place, it gives users a reason to give value to a website. The default setting after you buy a domain name will not do any good for a business, if the site is just a parked page, as nobody will look into it. The chances to earn new customers is when you fill your site with information about your business, industry, employees, and more.

If you are working in the lead-based industry, website visitors can convert into your loyal customers with the way you present the content. If you are working in the retail, making additional sales to your site, it can earn the customers. For growing a business, both the methods work well, especially when target audience have been tailored. So, in a nutshell, when you want to start digital marketing, content is most important part of your site.

Why is content so important?

The phrase “content is king” is the phrase most marketers are aware of, yet the importance continues to be underestimated for content marketing. Customer’s interaction with businesses and brands changed Digital and online marketing. People have reasons to visit your site when it has content and become new customers.

Though you have a website, it won’t do anything for you without the content. Here are the seven major reasons for the importance of content.

  • Informs your audience

  • Ranks in Google

  • Earns links from other sites

  • Shareable on social media

  • Earns conversions

  • Makes you an industry authority

  • It is the foundation for every digital marketing strategy

An important role in the field of marketing which creates an impression in audience mind is the Content. Content related to information sharing and sales have a lot of difference. Sales content always have a negative impact on audience whereas you get more leads and sales with editorial content which always last a great impression. Original and good content is always SEO (Search Engine Optimization) friendly. 92% marketers say that content creation is either “very effective” or “somewhat effective” for SEO. Creating content means that you have something to show and share with your audience and engage them as per your requirement.

Perfect content marketing is represented in full funnel. All the 3 stages prospects go through on their way.

  • They need content at the top of the funnel (TOFU) that facilitates awareness.

  • They need content in the middle of the funnel (MOFU) that facilitates evaluation.

  • They need content at the bottom of the funnel (BOFU) that facilitates conversion.


Content Lifecycle: source taken from a web

Content Lifecycle: source taken from a web

In addition, the business also needs to be aware of the marketing strategy. Marketing strategy helps to establish an appropriate content strategy that is most likely to convey the intended go-to-market message. Organizations should seek to employ the services of an online marketing expert or agency that can understand the various buyer personas and how to spark interest, generate leads and convert sales, through the correct composition and creation of content.

This makes content the beating heart of any digital marketing strategy. It’s essential to success, and it has the potential to deliver on that success every day.


Social Media and Business Intelligence – A snapshot of the real world

Social media and business intelligence are now inseparable. The new reality, as well as new tools for understanding human behavior, has created by the emergence of social media. From marketing to crime prevention, the applications are varying and this phenomenon is still growing. The posts lifetime is only a few hours or few days at the most, till it is replaced by a new post. This rapid succession needs a real-time response; either your window of opportunity closes or seize the moment.

The Social Media Landscape

Striving to harness the power of social media is the variety of environments available, the number of daily active users and the volume of data being quickly updated is the first challenges for the organizations. At the finest, displaying the four Vs is the big data.

For accurate results, thorough analysis of structural differences and discrepancies between different social media platforms should be considered to be very important. Retrieving business-relevant data from reviews is difficult and proposed an analytical framework that can be used with a few modifications for comparing data across multiple platforms

Beginning Your Analysis

It is helpful to note its five defining traits when studying information from social media:

  •        heterogeneity

  •        duplication

  •        Semi-structured

  •        scale

  •        immediacy

According to the information type and the text items filtered by linguistics, semantics, and source; the data retrieved by Web-scraping tools from social media must be divided. To determine the prevailing sentiment the information is then combined and can be further filtered by age group, income bracket, gender, and other demographics

Depending on the goal of the organization commissioning the study, social media can answer questions related to the most important vertices in the network (influencers), create clusters of users with common traits, or highlight the perception of a brand by a particular demographic group.

Business Implications

To understand that social media is not about selling is paramount for organizations. Most of the people use social media to keep themselves accountable and as a tool for measuring success; Companies can use these to reach their economic targets as user-specific goals. By using appropriate interests and demographic/sociographic determinants, their marketing representatives just need to filter leads correctly.

Individual communication and companies broadcast to general crowds were mainly one on one before social media. Depending on their number of connections, popularity, content, and even the hour, when individual users post the ideas could develop into a phenomenon or even a conversation when individual users post. Many posts are not seen or commented on at all at the other extreme.

Companies can understand what makes viral content by looking at the patterns of these types of online interactions and to end up in the Internet’s basement. Companies can tell whether anyone is viewing or interacting with their content and also target specific content to specific groups.

Speak Directly to Your Customers

Social media offers a glimpse into potential clients’ lives, the clans they identify with, goals, and desires as well. Web-scraping requires employing big data analysis tools makes sense of information retrieved from social media By precisely striking the sensitive chords of your target audience and speaking their language can help you advertise more accurately which includes the findings in your BI tools. Think of your customer’s private life before peeking into their posts. However, users detect a company’s fake tone much as they do with friends, and the tone must be genuine and consistent.


Advantages and disadvantages of pie charts

Rather than just presenting a series of numbers, a simple way to visualize statistical information for businesses is charts and graphs. The most common of these is the pie chart. As it shows data in slices, as it has a circular shape, its name comes from a resemblance of the pie. When you need to present and measure simple data, pie chart works well which is simple to create and understand. This pie chart is not suitable for the complex needs as other visualization tools like a bar graph.

Overview of Pie Charts

A pie chart is a two-dimensional circle, at its most basic, divided into a few slices. As a whole, the chart represents the sum of all its data; individual slices represents a percentage of the whole. For example, if you create a pie chart which shows product line performance, your pie chart will simply have two halves, when you have two lines that each account for 50 percent of turnover. The most prominent effects such as three-dimensional charting, dragging slices, slice pivoting of charts adds more visually appealing.

Advantages of a Pie Chart

  • A simple and easy-to-understand picture.

  • It represents data visually as a fractional part of a whole, which can be an effective communication tool for the even uninformed audience.

  • It enables the audience to see a data comparison at a glance to make an immediate analysis or to understand information quickly.

  • The need for readers to examine or measure underlying numbers themselves can be removed by using this chart.

  • To emphasize points you want to make, you can manipulate pieces of data in the pie chart.

Disadvantages of a Pie Chart

  • If too many pieces of data are used, pie chart becomes less effective.

  • They themselves may become crowded and hard to read if there are too many pieces of data, and even if you add data labels and numbers may not help here.

  • You need a series to compare multiple sets as this chart only represents one data set.

  • To analyze and assimilate information quickly, this may make it more difficult for readers

  • As the reader has to factor in angles and compare non-adjacent slices, it has its problems in comparing the data slices.

  • To make decisions based on visual impact rather than data analysis leads readers to draw inaccurate conclusions

  • Negative Pie / positive Pie cannot be understood until I hover the pointer on the pie. So when Negative data present, pie chart is a bad option

Alternatives to a Pie Chart

  • If you are handling many pieces of data or want to make comparisons between data sets, other charts and graphs may be a better option

  • To add the ability to display multiple datasets, doughnut charts share the circular shape and overall functionality of pie charts.

  • To make it easier to compare segments, you can place data labels and totals in the doughnut hole

  • To allow quick comparison and measurement, bar graphs can be represented data by length.

  • Presenting many pieces of data at a time or want to compare different sets of data in a single chart may be easier to read

  • Also, Treemap can be used as a way to display categorical values as a percentage of the total.


Machine Learning in Finance

Before the advent of mobile banking apps, proficient chatbots, or search engines, machine learning has had fruitful applications in finance well. Few industries are better suited for artificial intelligence as they have high volume, historically accurate and quantitative data. And finance world is the leader of the pack. More accessible machine learning tools and more accessible computing power has triggered the use of machine learning in finance more than ever before.

From approving loans to managing assets to assessing risks, machine learning has come to play an integral role in many phases of the financial ecosystem. Yet the manner in which machine learning finds its way into their daily financial lives is the testament of its power.

Machine Learning in Finance – Current Applications

The examples below are being put to use actively today for machine learning. It’s true that some applications not only leverage exclusively machine learning, also multiple AI approaches.

Portfolio Management

The term “robot-advisor” is now commonplace in the financial landscape, just five years ago this term that was unheard-of. And no it doesn’t involve robots. To calibrate a financial portfolio to the goals and risk tolerance of the user, these algorithms are built.

Algorithmic Trading

The use of complex AI systems to make extremely fast trading decisions were envisioned in the seventies. An increasingly important role in calibrating trading decisions in real time is played out by machine learning and deep learning. The term “high-frequency trading” (HFT), an algorithmic system, which is considered to be a subset of algorithmic trading is often responsible for making thousands or millions of trades in a day.

Fraud Detection

There is a “perfect storm” in the offing given that an increasing amount of valuable company data being stored online as the internet is becoming more commonly used in combining more accessible computing power leading the data security risk and other vulnerabilities. New potential (or real) security threats are actively learned by modern fraud detection.

Systems can detect unique activities or behaviors and flag them to security teams by the use of machine learning. To avoid false-positives – situations on the “risks” flagged that were never risks in the first place is the challenge that is being addressed by these systems.

Loan / Insurance Underwriting

A perfect job for machine learning in finance could be underwriting. However, machines replacing a large swath of the underwriting positions that exist today is a great deal of worry in the industry today. Millions of examples of consumer data and financial lending or insurance used to train machine learning algorithms, especially amongst large companies. This is done to detect trends that might influence lending and insuring into the future, underlying trends which can be assessed with algorithms can be analyzed.

 Future Value of Machine Learning in Finance

Customer Service

Rapid expanding area of venture investment and decreased customer service budgets are paving way for chatbots and conversational interfaces. With robust natural language processing engines as well as reams of finance-specific customer interactions, these assistants are now being rapidly built.

People who log onto a traditional online banking portal and do the digging themselves quite often require swift querying and interaction from someone that might pick up their searches and preferences and provide suggestions assistance. At the same time assure the customer that the assistance will not be accessing sensitive data.

Today, in banking and finance, this kind of chat experience is not the norm. This may become a viable option for millions in the coming years.

To manifest itself as specialized chatbots in a variety of fields and industries is likely goes beyond machine learning in finance.

Security 2.0

The archaic security protocols of usernames, passwords, and security questions will no longer be in vogue for years to come. User security in banking and finance is a predominantly high-risk game. Future security measures might require facial recognition, voice recognition, or other biometric data, in addition to anomaly-detection applications like those currently being developed and used in fraud.

Sentiment / News Analysis

We can expect to hear very little by way of how sentiment analysis is being used specifically on how hedge funds hold their cards tight to their chest. Nevertheless, understanding social media, news trends, and other data sources will be much of the future applications of machine learning.

To enhance and replicate human “intuition” of financial activity by discovering new trends and telling signals is the only hope by the machine learning as the stock market has nothing to do with ticker symbols in response to myriad human-related factors.


The Future Scope of Digital Marketing

In today’s world of internet, Digital Marketing is the only one and most guaranteed way of marketing, which is popularly being the most preferred space for marketing communications and related interactions.

The future of marketing is way beyond the traditional marketing and now, marketing is majorly based on the Digital Sphere. The scope of Digital Marketing provides some of the most powerful techniques of marketing where traditional modes of marketing fail.

The great panjandrum on Digital Marketing over industrialists is to empower them and to optimize their start-ups in the quickest possible and most cost-effective fashion. Future of digital marketing is going to be more encompassing in 2018. Undoubtedly, it is an undeniable fact that there is a great scope in digital marketing.

The things that are considered for Digital marketing are like –

  • Search engine results – page rankings
  • Search engine platforms – Advertising
  • Conversion through SMO & SEO campaigns
  • Optimization of internet marketing & associated ROI
  • Marketing on Digital World  & Banner ads on other websites

Future Trends in Digital Marketing in India

The most powerful and result-oriented way of marketing in 2018 is Digital Marketing, and some of the observations on current and future  of 5 key channels which plays role in deciding future of digital marketing in India are–

  1. Mobile Marketing

Mobile marketing is going to play one of the most significant roles in 2018, where marketers plan in a result-oriented fashion to understand customers, to devise result-oriented marketing plans and campaigns, changing needs and characteristics.

  1. Video Marketing

Video content is absorbing up the content marketing and power to tempt more customers in quickest possible is the advantage for online marketers. As mobile marketing is booming, videos are now offered on mobile phones that fuel up the whole process. Video marketing is the most powerful way that companies use for – Introducing themselves, Spreading their messages, Promoting their products/services, Increasing their reach and optimizing search ranking, Boosting customer engagement and enhancing returns on investments

  1. Email Marketing

The most important part of your business branding is Email marketing and you need to pick those trends that befit with your business objective and customer profile. In email marketing strategy, using professional email templates should be the base of your e-mail marketing campaign, as your emails should reflect your quality and Integration of social media content. Aesthetically appealing animated emails are the trend that will see a great rise in mobile-friendly email marketing.

  1. Social Media Marketing

Social Media Marketing has a massive power to channelize marketing campaigns in effective and innovative ways as social media keeps evolving. The medium to respond to new tech innovations adeptly is Social media, it also exceeds customer’s expectations at the same time. Some of the key social media trends in 2018 are – Live video streaming, the Enormous evolution of Snapchat, Instagram stories, social slideshow ads, social chats, etc. would be the top components of social media marketing in 2018

  1. Search & SEO Marketing

It is important for you to know latest changes of SEO marketing and employing effective search engine strategies as Search engines evolve constantly. As they evolve, their changes prompt shift in marketers’ ways of targeting audience. As per statistics, 14 billion web searches are conducted each month through different search engines across the globe due to enhanced frequencies of searches in the mobile marketing and social media.

Some of the SEO trends that will turn out to be major hits in 2018 are- Google’s Keyword Planner, Moz’s Keyword Planner, Link building will stay as a powerful SEO technique, Quality content marketing with the perfect blending of video content, Personalizing SEO campaigns as per target audiences


Digital Marketing scope in future of marketing will not only thrive in the most result-oriented fashion but also let businesses survive. Following latest updates, including new techniques of Google and combining future trends in digital marketing will let your inbound marketing acquire great benefits for you in 2018.

It will be worthwhile for you to climb on to the digital bandwagon when the time is right as Digital Marketing sure remains as the most effective way of marketing in the future too, either business-wise or career-wise.


Driving Immersive Experiences in Virtual and Augmented Reality

When we ask anyone about what modern technology could have the most exciting impact on their lives and it’s not hard to understand why many are likely to say virtual reality (VR) or augmented reality (AR). Even the very mention of the name conjures up exotic visions where the immediate environment around one, as well as the entire world beyond it, could be created or transformed in near magical ways.

As computing power continues to accelerate and connectivity becomes global, the way we interact with our digital world will continue to evolve and expand. it is believed that immersive experiences will be at the center of user experiences at homes and workplaces.

Apart from Images of Sci-Fi movies like Avatar and Terminator what are VR and AR

Following are the definitions of immersive experiences:

 Virtual Reality

Virtual reality is the creation of a simulation of a conceptual environment or real environment with which a user can interact. Typically, a combination of visual and audio cues are used to create the environment.

Augmented Reality

The real objects can be amplified with additional information by providing a view of the physical world such as visual information or sounds and allowing the introduction of virtual objects into the physical world space and for virtual object interaction with the real world is termed as Augmented Reality.

Mixed Reality

To encompass the gamut of everything between pure augmented reality and pure virtual reality is termed as Mixed Reality.

Driving Immersive Experiences

From a tech perspective, most of the focus around AR and VR has been on the visual experience, and rightly so. After all, with virtual reality products, an entirely new digital world is created that completely encompasses your field of view. Whether watching a 360? movie, playing a game, traveling through the universe, walking through a 3D model of a building, or any number of other immersive experiences, VR headsets, and related products are designed to create the illusion that you’re in an utterly new world.

On the augmented reality side, the idea is to overlay digital information and other content onto a real-world camera view. The first experience that many people had with AR are popular mobile gaming apps.

Immersive virtual reality is a hypothetical future technology that exists today as virtual reality art projects, for the most part, which consists of immersion in an artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed in consensus reality. Immersive technology creates a sense of immersion that blurs the line between the simulated world and physical world.

 Practical Applications

Virtual reality has been around for over 30 years and many think of that when they hear of immersive experiences. The problem with virtual experiences is the device being wired to a processing unit. As the hardware gets better the issue of being sick is sometimes associated with VR gets mitigated. To assist with the user experience, VR devices often require hand controllers.

Augmented reality experiences combine physical and virtual environments. Senses remain engaged with the physical world by providing additional sensory information for prolonged usage. AR usually avoids additional hand controllers and can use hand gestures.

Here are just some of the ways you can gain a competitive edge with immersive experiences:

  • Product placement – clients can see how products and displays will look in their environment.

  • Equipment walkthrough – demonstrate how your equipment will operate in their facility.

  • Architectural designs – take your client through an immersive tour of your building design.

  • Training – simulate environments, facilitate collaboration

Different Devices for Different Experiences

Toss in the many advanced VR and AR products that have already been introduced to the market, as well as all the creative implementations of the technology in gaming, shopping, entertainment, and medical procedures, and you can easily see how consumers and businesses alike could get caught up in the potential of this new technology. Microsoft HoloLens, Oculus Rift, Samsung Gear, HTC Vive are the devices which provide the experiences of mixed reality, virtual reality experiences.


Autonomous Vehicles on Road

Autonomous vehicles (AV) are not just another new innovation. They are an innovation that is steadily developing into an intensely social space. It is, therefore, nothing surprising that an extensive variety of factors impact people in public levels of receptiveness towards Autonomous vehicles and that drivers have solid sentiments about how AVs should act on the road.

Autonomous Vehicles On Roads. Are They Ready Yet? 

Autonomous vehicles may possibly change the substance of transport, the experience of our day by day drive, and at last, make our streets more secure spots. In any case, our review finds that the major share of respondents stay worried at the prospect of Autonomous vehicles, regardless of whether over a quarter of respondents are available to the entry of Autonomous vehicles on our roads. While considering current levels of knowledge and experience of Autonomous Vehicle innovation, it is to be trusted that more prominent harmony will relieve a portion of the worry.

In any case, this exploration recognizes a various profound set of reservations – to the readiness to give up control, to the unwavering quality of Autonomous vehicle innovation and to AVs’ capacity to incorporate in the “social space” that is the road. It is important to comprehend these reservations, as opposed to simply accept that general public needs more info if AVs are to exchange a place for themselves on the road.

Debates that emphasis just on advancing more prominent safety measures, a way of life improvements or financial efficiencies won’t pick up traction if AVs don’t fit easily into a general public picture of what the road ought to resemble for them to drive on.

Connected Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) are no longer part of an envisioned future; they are being tried on roads today. But, anticipating a precise timeline for when our vehicles will be completely connected and self-ruling is a real challenge.

That has less to do with understanding the vehicle innovation than surveying the unpredictable web of policies and procedures – from creating traffic signals that speak with vehicles to insurance policies which bolster this new reality – that must be pondered, decided and executed. Our exploration looks beyond technology to comprehend what must occur before fully autonomous vehicles turn into a reality.

Autonomous vehicles are functioned by a series of technologies which includes cameras, LIDAR scanners, GPS innovation, ultrasonic sensors, millimeter-wave radars, vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-framework network, and exclusive algorithms. These work together consistently to perform the whole dynamic driving task in all circumstances and situations throughout the whole excursion.

The potential effect of autonomous vehicles is absolutely progressive. Wide-scale acceptance will prompt exceptional social, economic, and ecological change. For general society, the autonomy and opportunity of individual travel will be accessible to nearly everybody – youth, seniors and the physically, rationally and outwardly weakened. The normal diminishment of road clog would bring enormous work and individual advantages. The additions from drop-in vehicle accidents and deaths are self-evident.

The boundless business acknowledgment of AVs in the quick future is delayed by technical requirements, administrative caginess, infrastructure obstructions, impulsive customer acknowledgment and cost of advancement. Therefore, the production of AVs will require a full makeover of automotive tasks and their environment support.

Here are Pros and Cons involved in Autonomous Vehicles.

Pros Cons
Traffic Safety Increases Things Can Get Inferior
Well-organized Transportation More Vehicles, Congestion, Wear and Tear
More Space for Housing, Retail or Public Areas More Urban Stretch
Economical Transportation Connected Infrastructure Price and Anti-Robot Criticism


There’s a lot of guarantee and opportunity associated with autonomous cars, however, there is a considerable measure of inquiries and concerns. The technology is yet being established and verified, so workarounds for a portion of the previously mentioned issues may be created as of yet, yet the framework isn’t impeccable at present.

Autonomous vehicles might be a part of the future; however, they are effectively conveyed over roadways, and it will be uprising not just for drivers and traffic signals, also for the transportation industry as a whole.


Wrangling Data in a Holistic Approach

We’re often asked to manage or present a single aspect of data when working on data and analytics projects. You may be working on how to get data from one system to integrate with data from another system to solve a specific data problem, or you may be tasked with dealing big and messy database and visualizing it for the sake of decision-makers with the information they need. But working with data is not so simple, as you need to understand the entire life cycle of your data.

Defining the Data Life Cycle

The way we see it, the data lifecycle exists in five phases. First, you gather your data, then you transform it into something useful, then you present and interpret your data, and finally maintain your data so that you can use it again. Visually put, the data lifecycle looks something like this:

Holistic data Approach                                                                                         Source: Excella

Let’s see what do all these things really mean?

Phase 1: Data Collection

This includes the collection of data across structured, semi-structured, and unstructured sources including website data, operational systems, and social media data. It’s important to identify where your data resides and how best to capture it, whether working with Big Data or traditional structured data sources.

Phase 2: Data Integration & Transformation

The foundation that enables easy and swift access to information for your end users is the Quality integration of your data assets. A data integration strategy is required to ensure data quality and consistency, even with the advanced capabilities of data tools to bring data together on demand. The processes that are repeatable, automated and able to be extended to meet future business needs are the provided best solutions.

Phase 3: Data Presentation

Your data is ready for its unveiling! You can uncover key metrics that will inform you of the current state, trends, and exceptions, through different methods of presentation. Findings should be presented in the most effective format and are often built using popular Business Intelligence tools and formats including exception reports, scorecards, historical trend reporting, operational reports, executive dashboards, and tailored web visualizations.

Phase 4: Data Interpretation

The initial interpretation of what the data is telling should be easy and obvious. Data Science is the practice of deriving insights from data when you will want to dig deeper and explore data using statistical methods. Data Science can gain insights from data and can encompass statistical analysis, machine learning, text analytics, predictive analytics, and more.

Phase 5: Data Maintenance

Maintaining the consistency and quality of data factors ensures that data remains functional long term. Some tactics include data quality thresholds and alerts, data integration breakpoints, and audit reports that can be built into data integration designs and promote data standards and data consistency. Data Governance can include building master data repositories, selection and deployment of data quality tool suites, and creating and implementing data privacy strategies.

Why is Understanding the Data Life Cycle Important?

When the data is presented to us in a report or dashboard, only one phase of the data lifecycle is seen. You’ll get data, but it may be more difficult to digest if you skip data integration steps. In reality, we advocate that the practices of data standards and data quality are embedded throughout the design, build, and deployment of every delivery.

In our data-driven age, with volumes of data growing so rapidly that the ongoing health and well-being of our data becomes critical. A holistic view of the data lifecycle is required, by avoiding common pitfalls to achieve the omnipresent goal of truthful data using proven practices.


Benefits of PMP Certification

PMP stands for Project Management Professional which is an internationally recognized professional designation. It has practical relevance in various industries like IT, services, construction, transportation, oil and gas, architectural, engineering and energy etc. Professionals are often concerned about the metamorphic change that PMP certification can bring into their career. The Project Management Professional (PMP) is a globally acknowledged professional certification that validates a professional’s education and experience in project management.

Why PMP certification? Here are the benefits of PMP certification:

  • PMP Certification makes you a part of a credible global workforce
    Since PMP is globally recognized, therefore an individual becomes eligible to work anywhere in the world. Unlike other professional courses like medicine, pharmacy, physiotherapy, engineering etc. where you must showcase your skills by either undergoing a short-term course or an examination while immigrating to another country, PMP certified professionals do not have to undergo an assessment. They can go and immediately start working there.
  • Recruiters prefer PMP Certified Professionals over other Project Managers
    To be able to work as a Project Manager, one needs to display high credibility as well as should be able to pay attention to the details without affording ignorance. PMP certification helps an individual acknowledge his project management skills.
  • Money runs after you after PMP Certification
    According to a research done by the Project Management Institute, it was found that in more than 80% of the cases, managers saw an increase of at least 20% in their compensation. An average salary of a PMP certified project manager in India is Rs.15,00,000, however, the salary ranges from Rs. 12,00,000 to Rs. 20,00,000. Managers term PMP as a ‘High Return on Investment Stock’
  • You become a much-needed person while some others are getting laid off in recession
    Although no one can immune an individual from layoffs during the time of the recession however from the previous experiences, it has been noticed that PMP professionals are considered valuable for the company, especially during the time of recession and are looked upon to drive the company out of the difficult time.
  • PMP certification equips you with necessary skills for being successful project manager
    Spend a day with a project manager and you would get to know the amount of work that goes in and out to drive the project successfully. According to a research, it was found that 90% of the projects that fail is due to the fact that the project estimates are not put in place correctly. There it becomes quite essential to jump onto the field only with proper training. It is rightly said, “The more you sweat during the training, the better you perform on the field.”


    Working as a project manager without a PMP certification training is like a second-year medical student entering an operation theatre to conduct a surgery. It is the most fatal thing one can even imagine of. While doing PMP, an individual gets to learn a lot of techniques that helps in streamlining his project management skill to ensure 100% successful project delivery.

  • You are always the First One to know about a new technology transformations
    The PMP badge always gives an individual to stay abreast with the new industry standards as well as technologies and therefore contributes a lot in making you a true leader.
  • You get to be an insider of multiple industry domains as your career progresses
    As a PMP certified Project Manager, one no longer gets restricted to a domain. Project management skills become more important rather than the product build. Therefore, switching domains shall not be a challenge for the individual.
  • You get embraced in a professional network that really puts you across exciting opportunities and places
    PMP certification helps an individual meet people globally through various platforms like discussion boards, online communities, brown bag sessions, conferences etc. People pool in their experience about the various projects handled by them. In short, one can witness the project management flora through these platforms.
  • You become more aware and influential in team management after PMP certification
    Handling the team, work, timely deliveries and at the same time the expectations of the employees and their social work-life balance may seem a challenge for a non-PMP certified individual however for a PMP certified individual, the skill set that he acquires during the PMP certification training make him the best resource to handle the hefty task, easily.
  • Employers regard PMP individuals like you as a goal-oriented and highly motivated individual
    Achieving the PMP certification is an apt way to let the employers know that you are goal oriented as well as motivated for a simple reason that achieving the PMP certification is not an easy task and it requires the individual to pump in extra hours of hard work apart from what he invests in during the office hours. So, it’s like a second job beyond the call of the duty. Therefore, employers are always in search of dedicated and committed individuals who are ready to put in more than 100%.

Therefore, it is quite evident that the benefits of PMP certification can take an individual to great heights in his career. A PMP professional definitely has an edge over others while moving up a career path. PMP salaries which were posted shows a clear difference between people with and without a certification. So mobilize yourself, to get this most sought after credential and increase your employability.


The Political Trends using Data Analytics

Political Regional religious Trends Using Data Analytics

Big data has become a powerful tool for the modern political candidate. Complex models allow campaigns to gain a much more refined understanding of constituents at the individual voter or household level, whereas prior campaigns were typically limited to the general demographics of the state, county or zip code.

Micro-targeting of voters through the use of data analytics gained momentum in the 2018 election cycle. In the campaigns, candidates are outsized advantages over opponents, both in the quality of data analytics and predictive modeling.

A new frontier of campaign analytics was born. Reflecting on the use of real-time metrics, by leveraging big data, candidates can effectively segment the voter population across a variety of metrics, including basic demographics (such as income and gender), lifestyle data and historical tendency to vote for a certain party. Candidates can also mine data from social media and other websites to measure individual voter interests, associations, and affiliations. Once candidates have gained a clearer picture of their voters’ identities, they can then adapt their communication strategy accordingly with the goal of more effectively reaching their target (and most receptive) audience.

Rather than pursue mass mailings or call campaigns, candidates can focus their efforts on voters that could make the biggest impact on Election Day. Strong supporters can be identified early on and enlisted as local influencers or canvassers in the field, and potential swing voters can be prioritized in outreach campaigns—the goal to micro-target each individual voter, in mass scale, across the entire nation.

Understanding a campaign’s voter base can also influence the medium that candidates use to communicate their message. For example, television ads are a common marketing tactic, but research has shown that one-third of voters do not watch live TV each week, while 52% of voters watch online videos on a weekly basis. By using big data to understand the behaviors and preferences of target voters, candidates can deliver content on the platforms that voters are most likely to use, thereby more efficiently using campaign resources and also potentially bringing down per voter acquisition costs.

Big data can help candidates determine the delivery strategy for their communications, and also shape the content of the communications themselves. Candidates can address the same issue in different ways to appeal to different audiences depending on their preferences and beliefs. Candidates may also deliver personalized content through voter-targeted digital advertising services. These services use voter registration data to identify individuals by voting history or party affiliation and then serve them customized ad content that addresses specific political issues or positions that are of interest to the voter. The ability to use data to define voter specific messaging, and then determine how best to deliver the messaging, creates a partnership that is difficult to beat.

From analyzing social media and demographic information to targeting and motivating voters, big data has become a powerful force in the election process in India and increasingly in other countries as well. And while the tools and methods candidates use will continue to evolve, the large-scale interpretation and analysis of data are likely to be a centerpiece of most future political campaigns.


SAP Leonardo-A New Digital Innovation from SAP

Sap Leonardo is a digital innovation from SAP that enables customers to make use of future technologies like IoT, Machine Learning, Blockchain, Analytics and Big Data to deliver software and microservices.

The name SAP Leonardo was inspired by the famous painter, sculptor, architect and Philosopher Leonardo da Vinci who was a multi-faceted person. The main objective of SAP Leonardo is to support public and business organizations in all aspects of their digital innovation strategies.

Why SAP Leonardo?

As Machine learning, the blockchain, and IoT tools aren’t usually part of the enterprise software stack and to bring these technologies into their business, the companies are struggling in this age of innovation and SAP Leonardo fills that gap

To record & supercharge the tools of digital transformation coupled with a design thinking process needed for business modernization & agility for the digital innovation system led to the creation of SAP Leonardo

SAP Leonardo Technlogies

Following are the key technologies that are integrated into SAP cloud platform which are built on top of SAP HANA.

  • Design thinking services – which enables users to develop future digital enterprise

  • Machine learning – provides the computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed by the users

  • Big Data – Manage vast amounts of data

  • IOT (Internet of Things) – Internet of computing devices embedded in everyday objects

  • Blockchain – Increase results in financial reporting and decrease fraud

  • Data Intelligence & Data Analytics

The world is transforming digitally day to day. And to make it run completely digital and powerfully without any hassles, SAP Leonardo play an integral part by combining all these technologies to make any Enterprise of any industry.

Advantages of SAP Leonardo:

  • Instead of forcing companies to find, integrate, and manage their own tools, it provides a common process, methodology, and innovation platform to implement new ideas quickly to help companies focus on the problem at hand is a major advantage.

  • Another important advantage of SAP Cloud platform gives SAP Leonardo is scalability. As the underlying technology is open, proven, robust, and scalable to meet every enterprise need, companies can use SAP Leonardo with confidence.

Why is it important

If we see the digital innovation in a broader context, it is clear that the emerging technologies like IoT, Analytics, AI, Big Data, Blockchain and Machine learning need to be viewed in combination. This is the key to create a framework for connecting the latest digital innovations. The SAP Leonardo portfolio includes data intelligence tools, benchmarking, design thinking methodologies and much more. SAP Accelerator packages are tailored to speed up the time to value for customers.

When it comes to digital innovation, companies have to create a new data-driven service fast so as to improve their experiences and make the processes more efficient. Yet they are not sure about starting their digital journey and which SAP tools & what solutions suits them in their business. That is where the SAP Leonardo accelerator packages come in. To support the objectives of business customers, consultants from SAP digital business services teams up with customers in the design thinking process to support their objectives of the business. The time scale for these prototypes is less than eight weeks, that depends on how extensive the customer’s innovation strategy is.

The most fundamental problem with innovation is getting distracted by details. SAP Leonardo help enterprises innovate with agility and velocity by providing pre-integrated methodologies, tools, and services.

The time for Innovation

To begin the transformation, start with thinking methodology from SAP Leonardo to hold new models and processes. You don’t need to wait for the enterprise and budget for a perfect future of innovation with SAP Leonardo and SAP cloud platform.


Text Mining Vs Text Analytics

In the early days the processing used to take a lot of time, days, in fact, to process or even implement the machine learning algorithms, but with the introduction of tools such as Hadoop, Azure, KNIME, and other big data processing software’s the text mining has gained enormous popularity in the market.

We define textual analysis to be the automated analysis of unstructured textual data, containing within it the methodologies of text mining and text analytics. Leading textual analysis use cases include Sentiment Analysis, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Information Extraction, and Document Categorization. Historically, text analytics practitioners have backgrounds in computational linguistics and knowledge management, whereas text mining practitioners come from the fields of data mining and statistics.

Differences between Text Mining and Text Analytics:

• Text Mining and Text Analytics solve the same problems, but use different techniques and are complementary ways to automatically extract meaning from text.
• Text Analytics is developed within the field of computational linguistics. It has the ability to encode human understanding into a series of linguistic rules which are generated by humans are high in precision, but they do not automatically adapt and are usually fragile when tried in new situations.
• Text mining is a newer discipline arising out of the fields of statistics, data mining, and machine learning. Its strength is the ability to inductively create models from collections of historical data. Because statistical models are learned from training data they are adaptive and can identify “unknown unknowns”, leading to the better recall. Still, they can be prone to missing something that would seem obvious to a human.
• Text analytics and text mining approaches have essentially equivalent performance. Text analytics requires an expert linguist to produce complex rule sets, whereas text mining requires the analyst to hand-label cases with outcomes or classes to create training data.
• Due to their different perspectives and strengths, combining text analytics with text mining often leads to better performance than either approach alone.

Key Points

• Text mining and text analytics can each be used be to solve any text analysis problem – Choosing the right approach (or mix) depends on whether the problem is well-defined or open-ended, whether there are historical labeled data available or well-established lists of keywords, and the cost of false positive and false negative errors. For rapidly changing domains, statistical approaches are able to identify weaker patterns that are predictive, whereas updating linguistic rules can be very labor intensive. These characteristics lead to a natural precision/recall trade-offs. Statistical approaches have better recall “out of the box”, but linguistic rules have higher precision. The best solutions find the right balance given the specific business problem.
• Improving text analytics with text mining – For text analytics projects, there are a number of ways to incorporate statistical text mining to improve the results. Most pure text analytics practitioners view text mining as a method for exploring the corpus and suggesting possible rules. For example, statistical approaches can quickly identify words with similar meanings and/or usage, identify important keywords, and suggest possible multi-word phrases. This additional information can help guide the creation of new linguistic rules.
• Beyond suggesting new rules, text mining can replace or augment existing linguistic rules. One of the strengths of a statistical approach is the ability to combine evidence from multiple features. As the rule-sets increase in size, complexity, and the number of special cases, text mining can reduce the rule maintenance burden and increase the ability to uncover new and surprising knowledge from the corpus.
• Improving text mining with text analytics – Text mining uses statistical approaches to combine multiple features into a single decision. The best way to improve text mining is to upgrade the quality of the features through traditional text analytics approaches such as lexicons, taxonomies, and rules. These help to ensure that feature creation follows “common sense”, including not breaking multi-word phrases, creating domain-specific linguistic rules, and accounting for technical language.
• Driven by continued growth in online applications such as targeted advertising, statistical approaches for textual analysis is one of the fastest growing areas of machine learning – The truly “big” data associated with most online tasks amplifies the need for the rapid scalability provided by a statistical approach. Look for the rapid expansion of statistical text mining that began with Google in the late 1990s to continue for the foreseeable future.

List of options that describe the comparisons between Text mining and Text Analytics:


difference between Text mining and text analytics
Table 1: Text Mining and Text Analytics

Linguistic and statistical approaches for processing text provide complementary results for extracting value from unstructured textual data. Though each has been practiced independently, the most effective solutions combine their strengths. This balances the precision of linguistically based text analytics with the powerful recall of a statistical text mining approach. The rapid growth of “big data” and predictive analytics means that the best techniques for achieving this balance will be constantly evolving, yet the tools exist today to make great progress on the wide variety of textual analytics challenges.


What’s New in PMBOK Guide 6th Edition?

PMBOK is a guide to the project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide official book provides the practice required to increase the success rate of the projects across various domains in the practice of project management. PMI ensures the continual improvement of  the PMBOK Guide by incorporating the developments and standards according to the emarging scenarios in varous disciplines and industries. The first version of PMBOK was published in 1996 and subsequently revised every four years(roughly). The 2nd edition was published in 2000, 3rd edition in 2004, a 4th edition in 2008, and the 5th edition in 2012. The current version of PMBOK is PMBOK Guide 5th Edition.PMI scheduled to release the PMBOK 6th Edition in the 3rd quarter of 2017 which includes some significant changes according to the current trends of the industry 

Whats new in PMBOK 6th Edition?

Alignment with Agile:
With Agile project management making inroads in the current project management space,PMI ensured that the PMBOK 6th edition is aligned in conjunction with the Agile project management methodologies. In PMBOK 6th edition,each knowledge area will bear a section called "Approches for Agile iterative and adaptive Envionments" which describes how the Agile practices can be integrated in the context of traditional project management. The PMBOK appendix also contains the information about the Agile and other iterative approches. Emphasis was also laid on techinal, leadership, business and strategic areas and project management business doucments in line with the PMI Talent triagle- a balance on the technical, leadership,and strategic management. PMI published the Exposure Draft and invited opinion from the public in 2016. Based on the Exposure draft of PMBOK 6 published by PMI following changes may reflect in
the new PMBOK 6th edition. Remember, the changes are suggested in accordance to the exposure draft published by PMI and the final version of PMBOK 6th edition may have some variations. 


  • Number of process groups are 5 and knowledge areas are 10. No change from previous version
  • PMBOK 6 will have 49 processes instead of 47 in PMBOK 5.Three new processes "Manage project knowledge" and "implement Risk Responses" (Both under Executing process group) and "Control Resources" under Monitoring and COntrolling process group are added and One existing process "Close procurements" deleted and included the content in close project or phase in integration Management Knowledge area 
  • The knowledge area "Human Resource Management" is changed to "Resource Management". Resources like machinery and material are also considered along with people(Human Resources)
  • In knowledge areas like communication, Risk and stakeholder management the word "Monitor" is used instead of "Control. For examle "Control risks" process is called as"Monitor Risks", "Control communications" is now called "Monitor Communications", control stakeholder Engagement is now called Monitor stakeholder Engagement.(practically project managers will be able to monitor these areas, but have very little control)
  • Time Management has been renamed to schedule management

Conclusion: Though the changes seem to be many, there is no devil is the changed curriculum. PMI would give some time window (usually 3-6 months ) to take the exam based on PMBOK 5, even after the official release of PMBOK 6th edition. Aspirants who are planning to take exam on PMBOK 5th edition can plan their preparation and take the exam!


Getting the best tableau training in Bangalore is now easy and cheap

With the advent of new age technology, there is also the development in the way of designing and representing presentation. The company is very much focused on designing high-quality presentation for the clients. They give stress in making high-quality presentation just because of people like pictorial representation more rather than any text material. Thus tableau is one of the new age software which has given the designing of presentation a whole new angle and dimension.

Why is tableau different from others?

There are various reasons of tableau being different from any other application. We know that company uses tools like Tally and MS Excel to keep their records and make their work easy. These applications are pretty well equipped to serve the purpose of any company. As the craze for this course is on the rise thus, it is important that you know about the basics related to this. There are many ways of acquiring knowledge about this language, but the easiest way will be to take admission in any institute that offers tableau training in Bangalore.

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This software can provide the facility of making balance sheets, keeping a regular taboo on the accounts, reminders regarding the payments to be made and the amounts of repayment of installments. For maintenance of TAX, this software is efficient. But still, there are some aspects which make this software unique.

Some of the reasons are:

• Use of a completely new interface and styling.

• Ease of making quality graphs and chart for representation purposes.

• The dates of various accounts can be compiled to prepare a single graph sheet.

• The designs and elements used in the graphs are different from all the contemporary software.

Knowing about the best institute

As there are many colleges, which will offer you extensive training in this field, knowing about selecting one is important. Due to the high demand for this subject, many colleges are offering various kinds of programs to students and inserted candidates. If you are looking for the best place then checking out the official page of excelr – tableau training in Bangalore will be the best option. Here you will get detailed information as to why people are choosing it over the others. The following are some of the salient features of the institute:

Firstly, the institute will make sure that every student is comfortable with the classes. They are just not interested in making money. They are on a mission of spreading knowledge and making the future generation independent. Their main agenda is to inculcate the basic ideas of this subject in all students, interested in the subject.

Secondly, the teaching staffs are efficient. They make sure that each student understands the basic principles. They hold regular classes and take tests to access the progress of students as well.

Thirdly, the fee structure of the institute is flexible. This means that students from all walks of life will be able to afford to study in here. They offer online classes for students. This is mainly beneficial for students who are also engaged in part-time jobs.



Whether you are hoping to upgrade and update skills in your present field or searching for training in a radical new zone, our Professional Certificates can help you make that next stride on your vocation track. Our professional programs are designed because of the needs of working grown-ups, with night and end of the week class sessions and at affordable prices. Join an enthusiastic, committed peer platform in classes educated by seasoned experts and pick up an accreditation that makes you emerge or stand up in today’s changing and competitive workplace.

Excelr, Excelr University’s web based learning platform, gives online expert and official advancement to students all over the globe. We offer more than 20 award winning proficient and professional certificate programs in a wide assortment of disciples:

Excelr’s interesting way to deal with web based learning joins the best components of an Ivy League classroom with the adaptability of a web based learning environment. An Excelr course is altogether created by Excelr University faculty, and often includes regularly incorporate insights of knowledge from other industry specialists. All Excelr course content originates from top rated programs with proven educational module.

Excelr courses are on the web and master drove with organized adaptability. Courses are facilitated by topic specialists, who guide you, help you, and challenge you apply the course ideas to your real world, at work conditions. Courses are intended to suit the timetables of busy experts, so they are accessible day and night and completely asynchronous. This implies once you start your course, there is no designated time or day that you should be on the web.

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Excelr courses have characterized start dates and end dates. A critical and basic part of self-coordinated learning is to have a complete line. Most Excelr courses take around six to eight hours to finish, over a two-week time span. Around 90% of students complete their courses, a fruition rate that stands out in industry.

As an Excelr understudy, you are never alone in your course. You are a part of a companion of 10 to 30 learners from associations and businesses around the globe. Required discourses have a vital impact in your course, giving you and your cohorts the chance to share and exchange your own encounters, best practices, points of views, and illustrations. This mutual learning is facilitated by a tutor who brings both topic ability and genuine experience. Your connection with companions from various associations, and foundations that facilities coordinated effort, networking, organizing, and a great deal of practical, shared learning.

The capacity for you to cooperate with master educators, to make inquiries and get replies, and to learn with—and from—different participant keeps the learning intriguing, useful, or more all, applicable to your work. What’s more, there’s one more key part: the practice opportunities. Most Excelr courses incorporate a venture, which moves you to apply the course ideas to your own particular associations. Others incorporate intelligent situations, reenactments, and other connecting with practice exercises. All courses incorporate instruments, systems, or occupation helps that you can put to quick use in your work.

Our approach positions you as a dynamic participant in the learning procedure, permitting you to construct the important critical thinking abilities at your own particular pace and in your own particular style to defy the genuine difficulties you confront at work and in life.


PMI ACP certification Training in Hyderabad: esteemed course to accomplish

The PMI is the Project Management Institute. They are the executives of the Project Management Professional (PMP) Course.The PMP qualification is an internationally recognized qualification and is the world’s driving accreditation for venture administration. Numerous organizations currently understand that activities are their greatest commitment to the primary concern. Don’t imagine it any other way, the interest for venture experts develops every year

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What is the PMI Course?

PMI ACP certification Training in Hyderabad was intended to guarantee that professionals can exhibit both their dedication to and ability in their field and the best practices of the business. They concentrate on the experience, instruction, and competency of accreditation holders. The objective is to convey the members to a point where their undertakings can exceed expectations.

An interesting note is that around one-fifth of the GDP of the whole world is spent on ventures. In this manner, it is not astounding that organizations, governments, and different associations are increasingly mindful of the rising expenses and dangers of undertakings. It is to everybody’s greatest advantage to see that the individuals who oversee and work in tasks are prepared experts.

PMP Credential and others

You can browse some authentic sites on the internet that will give you a handful of worthy information and will clear all your doubts, you have regarding the particular lessons. Go on reading the next segment.

Obviously, the Excelr – PMI-ACP certification Training in Hyderabad is the most prestigious qualification and was additionally the primary qualification offered by the course. The course is known as the world’s principal proficient affiliation. This association has been in charge of the benchmarks that make up great venture rehearses, mastery in administration, proficient improvement assets, and qualifications that are internationally perceived.

Certification Cost of the particular course

The PMP exam will cost about $555, in any case, the cost can be brought down to $405 for candidates that get to be PMI individuals before taking the test. The funds are the cost of the participation, so I propose that would be candidates gotten to be the project managers before taking the exam. They get funds on the test and have one year access to the majority of the association’s assets.

PMP training programs cost amongst $1500 and $3500 when taken at a classroom or training focus. In any case, online courses can be found for a great deal less expensive.


Understanding the necessity of Agile Certification for promoting the career

The process of information technology has many fields and understanding each of these is very important for ensuring that the business runs smoothly. It is easy to make a career in this field if you invest time and effort in grasping the subject. Once you gather all the information, you will face no issues when dealing with the topics, associated with IT.

The job of corporate training and specialized field, particularly the field of Information Technology is brimming with specific attributes and systems. Agile certification is primary amongst these fields. The person, who holds a degree in agile venture administration, grasps the information to handle an IT venture to administer the stages and projects of the organization.

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All in all, these authorization courses are intended to screen the product advancement extends that the utilized designers handle in a corporate or IT center point. Presently you may ask why the courses are required when architects are all around prepared to fulfill the tasks.

Selecting the Institute for attaining the degree

There are various institutes, which are offering the various degree as well as certificate courses to the aspiring candidates. As the number of these institutes is growing with leaps and bounces, it is important that the candidate investigates well before selecting a particular organization. After gathering all the information about the duration, fee structure, practical training scope and other related things, one should fill in the form for getting reenrolled in the programs.

Applying for online courses

For professionals, time is less, but they need to further their training in agile programs so that they can enhance their careers. What will you do if you do not have time to go to the traditional institutes? The answer is simple. You can opt for the online classes, which are offered by most institutes now a day. With the help of these online classes, the candidates will not have to leave their jobs or worry about the missing the regular classes. They just need to log on to the official site of the institute and get the information from teachers, who are available to provide them with the much-needed guidance. If you want to know more about this, then check out the excelr – agile certification as soon as possible.

Necessity of the training

Improving execution and general benefit can be easily achievable by specialists who have gone for agile training. Here are some more purposes important to answer any request you may have about Agile. This technique is moreover a solid system for supervising customer or client ventures, particularly when the multifaceted nature of the customer’s needs is unreasonably troublesome, making it difficult to accurately or completely depict to the game plan of a venture.

To be a part of this training program, one needs to fulfill certain prerequisites. So, enrolling in the programs will assist one in making their dreams of a bright and flourishing career a reality. This will not only improve the career but will also benefit the business organization in general.


Online PMP Certification course can help you to achieve success easily

The modern technology has made our life easy and comfortable in various ways and now we can do almost everything from our place using internet connections. Then why don’t you use it in learning a certified professional program? There are some educational institutions that provide various online courses to make your future bright and successful. There are several benefits of these online courses that can help you to achieve success in an easy manner. In this competitive market, if you want to secure your place, then you need to learn some skills in such a manner that can make you remarkable and these skills can be learned perfectly from the educational certified syllabuses. Though you will get various choices available in the market to make yourself polished and perfect in the industrial belt but the PMP certification course is something that makes you skilled in project management department. You can go through this certified course if you are interested in making your future in a corporate sector. This learning process is provided by different organizations, but online training is the best to be chosen among all.

Why you should go for online certified learning program There are different institutions available with numerous management learning programs in this modern educational sector. But all of them may not make you satisfied, and so, you should select a program after going through all the details of the Institute and the syllabus. The syllabus should suit your personality and career graph as well. If you want to become an expert in a particular professional field, then nothing can be better than the online PMP certification course. This online portal can give you a chance to learn about project management in detail from the trained personality and interact with these experts regarding your queries about this course as well. This learning system is not only comfortable because you can access them from your home but you can also record the session and see them later to revise them.

Nothing can be better than the online PMP certification course

These online learning systems can save your time, and you can manage to learn them in detail even after doing your task and according to your comfortable time. These training programs allow you to get a classroom flavor at your comfortable place, and the recorded training programs are delivered in an understandable manner as well. The personal experiences and the results of learning these management skills are shared at this portal to give you an idea about it. Every detail of the training program is given on this web page, and you should go through them carefully before applying for a learning program. These short-term training programs can make you an expert in your desired field, and you can also get a valuable certificate from these institutions at the end of this session as well. This certificate is very valuable to establish your knowledge in front of the corporate sectors. These points mentioned above should be kept in your mind while investing in a professional learning program and the benefits of the online educational services should be accessed to save your time as well.


ExcelR-Your finest choice for professional skills and proper guidance

Up and Cross-skilling is the activity of primary importance for working individuals of the present times to stay in front in their lines of work. ExcelR makes your learning easy by the use of an extensive gamut of itinerary offerings that include Business Analytics, PRINCE2, PMP, TOGAF, ITIL, and so on. We are among the leading training & consultation companies having an international presence and we are proud in endorsing that we’re the lone firm of our type who works creatively with our patrons in every step to guarantee that they are given the guidance they require, to aid them in advancing their careers and creating sustainable development in their corporations.


ExcelR aids individuals as well as organizations to stand out by providing courses on the basis of matter-of-fact knowledge and hypothetical concepts. The reputation that we have in the industry is clear and it is that we present the finest value in preparation services pooled with the aid of our imaginative minds to fashion a solution that goes with your learning requirements. We are of help in building up careers and molding the upcoming leaders. ExcelR Solutions is among the top providers of training of specialized certification coaching solutions in the earth. We go all-out to supply the finest training methods, instructed by industry experts at places all through the world. Partner with us today and see why we are the number one choice for business professionals all over the world.


We present training on

  • Business Analytics/Data Scientist Certification (PMP)®,
  • (CAPM)®
  • (PMI-ACP)®
  • (PMI-RMP)®
  • ITIL– Foundation
  • ITIL –Intermediate
  • ITIL Expert
  • Lean Six Sigma Black Belt
  • Lean Six Sigma Green Belt
  • Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt
  • Microsoft Project
  • Minitab
  • Scrum
  • CMMI
  • ISO 27001
  • ISO 9001
  • ISO 20000


The Consulting Solutions that you require

With global headquarters in USA and presence in MiddleEast, UK, Netherlands, Australia, and India, the faculty of ExcelR has trained over 20,000 working professionals all through the world. ExcelR Solutions had been established with the belief of offering an extensive assortment of coaching alternatives for working individuals. We aid organizations of each and every size to authorize their member of staff by offering courses founded on matter-of-fact knowledge and hypothetical concepts. Our “expediency & One-Stop solution” guarantees that they are given the finest learning by one of the premium professionals, at the time and place that suits you the most. We accomplish this by offering a blend of Classroom & Online tutor-led coaching, simulation tests, E-learning, and numerous more. By being aware of your requirements we provide for an extensive diversity of your ambitions via these diverse channels.      

Get in touch with us

To be able to find out more regarding ExcelR Solutions and also our top-notch teaching and consultation solutions, make contact with us today and allows any of our knowledgeable professionals help you out with any queries that you could have and enlighten you on any course among the numerous courses that are offered by us. We will make sure that when you get in touch with us, you get all your doubts cleared and get a fresh look at your career.


PMP Exam Prep Sample Questions With Answers and Explanation

Here are some objective type sample PMP test questions and their answers with explanation are provided just below to them. This free sample questions is just to provide you a concept of kind of questions which may be asked in PMP Certification Examinations.

Offered by the specialists over at ExcelR, here are some questions to help you in preparation for the PMP examination. Good Luck!

Question 1

The objectives of project risk management are to increase the likelihood and impact of ______.

a) neutral events
b) negative events
c) positive events
d) unpredictable events

Answer – C: The likelihood and impact of Positive Risks or opportunities should be increased

Question 2

Which is not a Risk management process?
a) Plan risk Management
b) Identify risks
c) Perform Quarterly risk Analysis
d) control risks

Answer – C: There is no processes called Quarterly Risk Analytics

Question 3

Project risk is an __________ event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives such as scope, schedule, cost, and quality.
a) unlikely
b) uncertain
c) unavoidable
d) unapproved

Answer – B

Question 4

Who provides the requirements of a new project?
a) Customer
b) Stakeholders
c) Project Manager
d) Senior Management

Answer – B: Stakeholders is the best source to collect requirements the rest of the choices are all could be part of the stakeholders

Question 5

Delphi technique is one of the tool to identify risk.
a) true
b) false
c) not applicable
d) Partially correct

Answer – A: Delphi technique is the one of the techniques to identify risks

Question 6

Matrix organizations exhibit features of both projectized and functional organizations. In a weak matrix organization, the role of a project manager may be that of a:
a) Coordinator
b) Manager with considerable authority
c) Support person
d) Functional manager

Answer – A: In weak matrix PM’s role could be Project coordinator or Expeditor

Question 7

Issues in the requirements is BEST resolved in keeping in mind the
a) Sponsor
b) Project Manager’s boss
c) Customer
d) End User

Answer – D

Question 8

Outcome of a project is always
a) Unique
b) Repetitive
c) Product
d) Result

Answer – A: Unique, The outcome is always unique in Operations or manufacturing the outcome is always recurring

Question 9

Which process prevents the scope creep?
a) Control quality
b) Manage project team
c) Control scope
d) Verify scope

Answer – C: Control scope process is most responsible for preventing scope creep. Main reason to control scope is to influence the impact of changes

Question 10

The deliverables are produced and the scope is being verified. What is the main objective of validate scope process?
a) Project scope statement is prepared
b) Deliverables are produced
c) Deliverables are tested and checked whether scope is met or not
d) Deliverables are accepted by the stakeholders

Answer – D: Stakeholders formally accept the project scope and the deliverables. This is the main objective of validate scope process 


Agile Certification course can make your future bright and successful

In these days, you will get a wide range of options available in the educational market, and there are several courses to make your future bright. But you should not select any of these learning institutes; rather you should be very conscious while selecting a professional course and an organization for it. There are some management courses that are certified which get more value at the workplaces for giving a valuable recognition of your learning. These courses are demanded in various placement job offering corporate offices as well. So it is always better to invest in that course which not only elaborates the syllabus in a proper way but provides a valuable certificate at the end of the session.

Specialties of agile course and its value

When you are thinking of going through a management course, then you can select the agile certification course which is very widely accepted by the people from various parts of this planet. This course is provided in various educational organizations, and you will get to know about these organizations from online portals as well. You will get this certified course for different time periods, and the investment amount changes accordingly. The special attraction of this course is that it can make you skilled in this specified professional field and help you to get a scope for doing the job in a prestigious position. This certificate determines that you have gone through the proper course and have learned it in a correct way as well.

Though in these modern days, you will get numerous educational sites that provide all the information about this course it is always better to go to a reputed organizational site like excelr – agile certification course. This curse is provided by the well trained and professionally skilled trainers in a proper way. The students can prepare themselves for training programs and examinations while going through this course. The course let you know about some useful management skills in detail to help you in the future. The online session and training can save your time to be an expert in this field. The amount of the course with the duration of this learning program is given at this site. Talented trainers can help you to learn the course in a proper and simple manner, and you can go through the personal experience section of the students who have already gone through it.

The course is ideal for the architects, coders, designers and other professionals who want to hold a remarkable position in this competitive market. This helpful course can make you successful professional in your desired field. The value of this certificate in the professional field is remarkable, and your eligibility of knowing this knowledge can be measured by this certificate as well. The elaborate syllabus of this course along with some important training instructions can make your learning process complete. You can also save your time by going through the online institutions that provide this course while applying for it. But you should check all the details very carefully before applying for it.


How to Learn R Programming

As our population is increasing so is our data and if not taken care we will face data-explosion in near future.  There are many tools for handling data one of which is R programming which is the best mechanism for statistics, data analysis, and machine learning.

There is a huge number of analysts and data researchers who use R Programming for handling data which helps them to take care of most difficult issues. R Programming has become one of the most prevalent languages for data science and one of the fundamental tools for Finance and analytics-driven organizations. Learning a programming language is not enough here, you should understand the data in the first place which makes easier to learn the programming language.

It is easy to learn, easy to use, and has powerful packages for data manipulation, data visualization, machine learning and statistical analysis. In order to learn R Programming, one must understand the basic syntax of the language. So many resources like books, eLearning videos, recorded sessions, and eBooks are available on the internet.

Choosing a resource that fits your learning needs, can be quite tedious and there is no such thing as a perfect resource, but almost every book/resource will have the basic information to get you started.

The step-by-step learning process of R helps you in becoming a great programmer.

  • Get a resource in order to understand the basic syntax of this language
  • Select a dataset, a nice way to begin is by exploring datasets that are already in the “base” package of R.
  • Understand the dataset
  • Apply the concepts available in the resource to the dataset
  • Have to understand what does the command do? And how is the data returned?
  • Change the arguments provided and see how the changes affect the outcome
  • Learn how to solve the problems you encounter by writing the steps in words in order to understand what you want as output
  • Check how do the changes affect the outcome and data
  • R has a great user community through which you can post your queries
  • Rstudio IDE combines all the R components by providing an environment to run R programs.
  • To get a nice overview of basic functions of R, check out R reference card
  • A lot of doc files are available, have to go thru thoroughly especially in providing arguments and the value of the function returns.
  • Learn to access an element from a list and from a dataframe – it’s the basic syntax understanding
  • Understand the way of writing pre-existing function and writing your own function
  • If you want to help on some function, if you have not gone thru the doc files then type in  example(function name) in the command prompt in order to know what is happening to the data in the application
  • Play around with the arguments and see how they change the resulting plot
  • Write down what you start with and what you want to end up with, i.e., input and output. This helps down what your script has to do
  • Evaluate error/warning messages
  • Learn what part of the code/function might have generated the error
  • Try visualizing data.
  • Do loads of assignments.

Rstudio could really be quite helpful and ease the learning process with an interface that pleases the eye and keeps you motivated.


Happy R programming.


AI and its Challenges

Artificial Intelligence (AI) saturates numerous aspects of our lives. Everywhere throughout the world, AI systems filter email spam, prescribe things for individuals to purchase, give lawful counsel on everything. Describing AI is troublesome, not scarcest in light of the fact that ‘learning’ itself is difficult to interpret.

AI engages a surge of headway over various divisions of the worldwide economy. It empowers relations to use resources more capable and engages out new plans of action to be made, frequently worked around AI’s effective capacity to cross-examine substantial informational collections. Numerous organizations in low and middle-income nations will profit by these AI abilities, changing over into more significant open doors for little business visionaries to develop new businesses.

Here are four challenges that need AI companies need to address the technology advances and assaults even more domains.


To develop and maintain the systems and software that runs the AI algorithms, AI revolution is creating plenty of new machine learning, data science, and IT job positions But here the problem is that most of the people are losing their jobs and doesn’t have skills to fill up the vacant positions, which create an increasing space for tech talent and developing cascade of unemployed and embittered population.

So as to prevent this, the tech industry has to help the society to acclimate to the major shift that is choking the socio-economic landscape and slickly transition towards the future where robots will be occupying more and more jobs.

People who are losing or might lose their jobs to AI in the future can complement the efforts by teaching new tech skills. In tandem, tech companies can employ rising trends such as NLP, cognitive computing to halt the complexity of tasks and making them available for more people.


AI can be just as or even more biased than humans and has been proven on several accounts in the past years. The problem is, if the algorithms fed by the trainers is unbalanced, the system will adopt the biases that those data sets contain. And these days, the AI industry is suffering from a mixture of troubles and some label it “white guy problem”.  

Another problem that caused much controversy in the past year was the “filter bubble” phenomenon that was seen on Facebook and other social media. To prevent any single organization or company to skew the behavior of an ML algorithm, safeguards have to be put in place in its favor by manipulating the data.

This can be accomplished by endorsing transparency and directness in algorithmic datasets. Shared data repositories that are not maintained by any single entity, can be vetted and audited by independent bodies.


ML algorithms come to understand for themselves how to react to events, while not even the developers of these algorithms can explain the scenario and decision that their product makes when the data gives them the context.

Every involved party can lay the blame on someone else when the boundaries of responsibility are unclear between the users, developer, and the data trainer. Therefore, new regulations have to set up in very first place to predict and address legal issues that will surround AI clearly in the near future.


In order to make their AI services more targeted and efficient, most of the companies desire to collect large amounts of user data with or without their consent. Companies may trek into uncharted territory and cross privacy boundaries, in the hunt for more and more data.

Unless regulating the information collection and sharing practices of the companies using AI technology, and taking necessary steps especially to remove data that would establish the identity of a user and protect user data, will end up causing harm than good to users. Also to prevent or minimize ill usage, the use and availability of the technology must be revised and regulated.

AI is no exception to the rule that there are benefits and dark sides to every disruptive technology. What is important is that we can take full advantage of the benefits by minimizing the trade-offs and identify the challenges that lay before us and acknowledge our responsibility to make sure that.


Analytics gives a boost to Healthcare industry

According to a new report by global software major Infosys, “Cybersecurity, Big Data analytics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are among the top technologies employed by healthcare and life sciences firms across the world”

 The essential purpose of the Big Data Analytics in Healthcare report is to locate, clarify and forecast the global market considering various aspects such as application, service, solution, organization size, region, and deployment model.

 Predictive analytics has played a pivotal role in reforming industries such as marketing, finance, retail, and manufacturing by aiding enterprises to understand data, analyze trends, and make cost-effective business decisions. Witnessing the tremendous success, the global healthcare industry has ventured into analytics to improve patient care, provide value-based care, and manage recourses. Reports from Global Market Insight predict that the overall healthcare analytics market will surpass $16 billion by 2024.

 With the increasing amount of patient data and the surge in healthcare regulations, the industry witnessed lower productivity, decreased success rates in R&D, and unreliable diagnoses. Healthcare institutes found it redundant to rely on doctors to predict patterns and analyze health issues as it demanded time and efficiency.

Analytics was introduced to manage the diverse environment of health centrist and overcome these challenges. Firms have identified several functionalities like diagnosis, pharmacy management, supply chain, and insurance, which can benefit from predictive analytics. By integrating these functions, the healthcare ecosystem can work seamlessly as one unit and exchange information to improve care.

Analytics HealthCare Industry

Patient care can change drastically as predictive analytics increases the accuracy of diagnoses, help understand data and predict health issues and assist doctors to prescribe preventive medication. It can aid hospitals and insurance providers with predictions concerning health insurance costs, trends for new products, and opportunities to customize products according to the patients’ requirement. Analytics can also assist researchers to develop prediction models without having to go through endless case studies. Pharmaceutical companies can also benefit from analytics as it would help them meet the needs of the patients better by understanding medication consumption.

As predictive analytics is penetrating through every market, reports say that it will revolutionize the enterprise arena with game-changing insights while creating new job opportunities in the analytics domain.

The healthcare industry may be going through a seemingly endless period of flux, but there are a few unchanging truths about big data analytics that can help guide executive leaders through troubled times.

“Going forward, Big Data will transform the way healthcare industry monitors and treats patients,”



The Negative side of ChatBot

AI-powered ChatBots

Round the clock availability is the major criteria for the modern day business. ChatBots fulfills this requirement using Artificial Intelligence that simulates the conversations of the people. AI-powered ChatBots serves as the first point of contact between customers and organizations and also helps in reducing expenses. As digital revolution is taking place at high speed, ChatBots plays a vital role in this modern era of transformation.

ChatBots has tremendous potential to change the way we live in and has many good things which human can’t do. Here is the list of features of ChatBots:

  •  Bots overtake the mobile applications

  •  Nothing needs to be learned by the human

  •  Bots provide a great user experience

  •  Bots act as media for business and customer

Though ChatBot is a major innovation in AI, it has few disadvantages and potential risks. Here are some of the problems of ChatBots:

  • ChatBots has high error rate: They are just software systems and cannot capture variations in human conversations. Thus resulting high error rate and less customer satisfaction.

  • The problem of reliability: With advanced machine learning concepts, ChatBots are becoming highly skilled in imitating human conversations. Though it seems to be an advantage, it has another end also – as hackers can easily create bots to convince users to share personal information which is highly unsecured.

  • Bots can be too mechanical: ChatBots are pre-programmed by developers and can handle user queries when the conversation flow goes in a right path. If something unexpected which was not fed to that happens, the performance gets affected.

  • Risks of using standard web protocols: Though ChatBot has definitely a fair share of innovative features, it has a significant downside as these programs use open internet protocols and can be targeted by professional hackers.

  • Probable confusions affecting buying decisions: the major advantage of bot for buyers is they can be allowed to check products in the chat window itself instead of checking in online portals which cause probable confusion that affects the users buying decision.

  • Low-level job openings being eaten up: As Intelligent ChatBots are programmed using latest Artificial Intelligence support, ChatBots serves jobs much faster than human workers which increases the productivity of the business. ChatBots are acting as a substitute for humans which causes a serious threat to humans at low-level positions.

  • Fails the Turing Test: Turing test will be performed on ChatBots to measure the intelligence of machines. Most of the ChatBots do not pass this test risking the conversations unfulfilled. ChatBots might be highly intelligent, but they can’t think of themselves on their own which ends up in failure.

  • Data handling on ChatBot platforms: while using ChatBots, business has to track user data and follow clear-cut policy on how and where data has been stored. People must trust the ChatBots and consequently trust the business.

  • Lack of individuality and generic conversations: with the help of Natural Language Processing, ChatBots behave like humans with end users.  However, ChatBots does not have their own personality to come across too generic conversations. As there are no feelings and emotions, it becomes critical to interact with humans.

  • Accuracy: As ChatBots are still emerging, mistakes in speech recognition and natural language processing is still happening.

  • The need for encryption: every conversation that takes place in the bot should be encrypted to maintain digital data security. If it is deployed in the non-encrypted platform, there might be chances of data hijack.


Highest-Paying PMP Jobs

In the U.S. in 2017, according to a survey of 10,937 project managers, the average project management professional without a PMP certification made $99,070 per year and the average project manager salary goes up to $119,235 with a PMP certification, an increase of more than 20% over a non PMI-certified project manager.

A PMP certification is critical for project managers who want to earn more money now more than ever. Any experienced project manager “ responsible for all aspects of project delivery, leading, and directing cross-functional teams” is a good candidate for, said by the Project Management Institute (PMI). The PMP certification exam for highest-paying PMP jobs containing 200 questions with a four-hour time limit for completion, costs $555 (or $405 for PMI members),

Below are the highest paying jobs for project management professionals:

Pharmaceutical project management professional

Average U.S. salary: $131,833

It’s no wonder that pharmaceutical project management professionals make more money, on average than in any other industry and is expected to break $1.1 trillion in sales by 2022 globally.

A successful project means overseeing the development of new medication for the treatment of diseases or other health problems. Pharmaceutical Project managers work with engineers, doctors, and researchers to ensure that research and development stay on schedule and on budget.

Resources project management professional

Average U.S. salary: $129,368

Resources project manager’s work in industries to extract and grow natural resources such as mining, petroleum, and agriculture.

Overseeing the procurement of natural resources for efficient delivery to end consumers leads to a successful project. Resources Project managers work with farmers, oil companies and mining to make the process of extracting and growing natural resources as efficiently as possible by improving communication and eliminating waste.

Consulting project management professional

Average U.S. salary: $129,208

A consulting project management works as a project manager for a consulting company whereas project management consultant works as a consultant who specializes in project management. We’re talking about the consulting project management.

A consulting project manager is the chameleon of the project management universe. A consulting project manager’s goal depends on a case-to-case basis in the industry they are working with on. The goal of the consulting project manager is to furnish advanced knowledge to the client to be successful in their projects. He can work with both the environmental engineers and sales managers on a timely basis.

Aerospace project management professional

Average U.S. salary: $121,923

If you were dreamed of building model airplanes, flying in the sky but became a project manager instead, a job as an aerospace project manager might be what you have looked for. They work with designers and engineers to make sure the new aircraft are delivered on time and budget. And they also focus on quality control and risk management. Overseeing proposals leading to the development of new aircraft and aerospace systems makes a successful project.

Engineering project management professional

Average U.S. salary: $121,769

An engineering project management professional is responsible for keeping the engineers focused. They work with engineers. They also communicate with clients to make sure that the end product is what the client wants. Guiding the development of a product to completion within a specified timeline and budget makes a successful project.



Thanks to fictionalized accounts of artificial intelligence, we tend to have rather fanatical constructs of the basic concept of AI, movies such as matrix and The Terminator have had a huge impact on the popular perception of AI; to the extent that many tend to view AI as inimical and antithetical to humanity. However, artificial intelligence; or intelligence displayed by machines that mimic human cognitive abilities, is an exciting space that is only going to expand and help us in more and more ways in times to come. While we are already seeing AI in action, its use will only increase; probably in ways that we cannot fully fathom at present!

AI dates back to 1956

Most   people think of AI as having a more recent nascence, but as academic discipline, researches have benn working on various aspects of this since the 1950s; for instance computing and robotics. it is the aim of AI to simulate human intelligence as faithfully as possible, achieving creativity and social intelligence. However, the idea that artifical beings can have human like qualities has troubled many.


AI applications

Thousands of products we use either use artifica;l intelligence or have been created using it.These applications are embedded deeply into the infrastructure for most industries; the broad fields of AI being: 

Machine learning- is among the first and most fundamental of AI applications; and some would say the most successful as well. This too, is a branch of computer science, which works towards uniquely enabling machines to learn, and adapt without explicit programming. Machine learning concerns itself with making predictions on data, exploring the study and construction of algorithms.
Machine learning is incorporated into our lives in a variety of ways: when we Google something, the way that our emails are segregated into spam, and primary segments, the way that possible data breaches are detected and obviated and so on. Various industries that use machine learning today include computer networks, eeconomics, medical diagonsis, insurance, kanguage processing,onlineadvertising, search engines, brain machine interfaces, user behaviour analytics, financial analysis and more.


Artificial neural networks- These are systems, which use artifical neurons; inspried by actual neurological connections in human brains, and the desire to solve problems artifically in the same way, which brain would. They are connectionist systems that progressively improve performance without task specfic programming. Applications of this type of AI include image recognition, speech recognition, social newwork filtering, computer vision, machine translation, playing board/video games and much more. Artifical neural networks are ideally suited to big data, with its numberless data and types because of their ability to collect and rationalize data from various disparate inputs.

Deep learning- Referred to as hierarchical learning, deep learning is actually one type of machine learning. Whereas machine learning envisages task specific algorithms, deep learning is based on learning data specific representations and examines the possible results of a combination of a set of inputs.Many deep learning applications overlap with other AI applications overlap with other AI applications of machine learning and neural networks. We use deep learning applications in our daily life when you use audio recognition machine translation tools, speech recognition, natural language proceesing, socal network filtering, dtug desing and bioinformatics.
While some feel that the progress of AI could realistically cause mass unemployment, other go so far as  to posit that AI may be a danger to humanity itself if developed unchecked. in fact, this conjeecture is not whollly without merit. in living memory, artifical intelligence has gone from creating simple numerical calculator to auto pilot to potentially self-steering vechiclaes on the streets!


5 Reasons why Agile project fail

Agile involves lot of human interaction and relies on self-organizing teams. Transforming to agile is more of a paradigm shift which encounters a lot of resistance Reward plan, and a static and prescriptive standard of work. Try to keep cross- organised uniformly and use pmo as enforcers.

Lack of collaboration in planning

If planning is done in silos and unilaterally the whole essence of Agile will be defeated and may lead to a failure.Planning should be done collaboratively by Product Owner, Team and relevant Stakeholders.

Bad Scrum Master  which uses a command and control style with the team to look faster, yet in reality slows things down. Scrum Master be a facilitator and should play the role of a servant- leader.

Do not have retrospectives or they are bad. Actions which come out get ignored or written off. Ensure that periodical retrospections are done by the team and actions are taken based on the retrospection.

Check book commitment doesntsupport organizational change management. Higher Mangement should institutionalize the culture across the organization.


Imbalanced Data

Multi-Class Classification in R With Imbalanced Dataset

Multi-Class Classification in R with Imbalanced Dataset
In Machine Learning, we come across a large number of datasets. As a fresher, who is learning about machine learning algorithms, the datasets to deal with are simple and easy as one gain more experience, the types of the dataset will be"imbalanced".
Wandering, what is an "Imbalanced" dataset? I will explain.. But before... But before that, know about a balanced dataset.



Machine learning is a manifestation of artifical  intelligence(AI) techonologies .Machine learning technologies imbue modern technological systems with the ability to learn and improve from experience minus explicit programming.Machine learning algorithms are categorized into supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms. These applications analyze data sets or groups of information to predict future events, draw inferences, and seek probabilities.

In real world situtions, machine-learning technologies enable the analysis of huge volumes of structured and unstructured data. These technologies have the potential to deeliver faster, accurate results when used to analyze profitable business opportunties or dangerous risks. However, computer scientists and software programmers note these technologies require time and resources to train properly. they are working to combine machine learning with artifical intelligence and cognitive technologies to drive faster processing of huge volumes of information issuing from real world processes.

Some of the general associated with machine learning pertain to the various attributes of Big Data These attributes include formats of unstructed data, streaming data, data inputs from multiple si=ources, noisy data of poor quality, high dimensionality of datasets, the scalability of algorithms, the imbalanced distribution of input data, data of   unknown provenance (unlabeled data), and limited labeled data.

In light of these problems, computer scientists and software engineers have identified some critical requirements for machine learning technologies. These include designing flexible and highly scalable machine learning architectures, understanding the essentially statistical characteristics of data prior to applying algorithmic techniques, and developing the ability to work efficiently with larger sets of data.

Machine Learnig Uses In Future

Scholars and scientists have identified five critical issues that hamper modern machine learning systems when these technologies are appiled to electronic signsl processing tasks. The issue pertain to large-scale data, different types of data, the high speed of data,incomplete forms of data, and extant data with low-value density. We note that machine-learning techologies can be appiled to signal processing with a view to improve 'Prediction accuracy.' However, problems emerge when we consider the large amounts (and diversity) of data associated with electronic images, video, time series, 1-D signals, etc. Modern industrial systems and consumer devices generate and store these forms of data. Hence, the situation drives a critical requirement to fashion efficient machine learning alogorithms that boost accuracy and speed.

New challenges emerge, as datasets grow larger. This fact disruptes the orthodox assumption that data is uniformly distributed across all classes. The situation creates the 'class imbalance' where in, a machine-learning algorithm can be negatively affected by datasets that bear data from classes with divergent probabilities of occurrence. The 'curse of dimensionality' poses fresh prob;lems for the current state of machine learning technologies. This problem refers to difficulties that arise from the sheer number of feature (or attributes) that may dominate a certain dataset. The crux of the issue lies is the fact that the predictive ability of a machine-learning algoritham declines sharply as dimensionaility increases.

Feature enginnering presents some problems for machine learning technologies. This refers to the processes of creating features that create efficient machine learning systems. Scientists aver that selecting appropriate features remains a laborious and time-consuming task that must precede any process-ing performed by machine learning technologies. The vertical and horizontal expansion of datasets makes it difficult to create new and relevant features.Hence, we may state that difficulties associated with feature engineering undergo further compliication as datasets expand.

Data science must minimize errors in data varience and bias if machine-learning algorithms are to generate accurate outputs. However, an overly close association with datasets(used in training sessions) may degrade the ML algorithm's ability to process new datasets.


Blog on PMP

PMP® – Project Management Professional

PMP® – Project Management Professional is a credential managed by Project Management Institute, USA (PMI). PMP® is globally recognized certification which demonstrates one’s competency to lead, direct and manage projects across any domain. PMP® certification helps the individuals to increase the marketability of their profiles to the employers and to stand-out from the crowd and in maximizing the earning potential of the individuals. The training and certification is based on a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK® Guide 5th edition)


PMP Blog on Video

Watch our sample e-learning video recorded by industry’s best trainers with extensive subject knowledge expertise and who are considered to be the best trainers in the industry. All the participants will be provided access to our state-of-the-art Learning management system (LMS) at, where one can access end to end course videos at your own pace & convenience sitting back at your home. Videos can be accessed from your desktop, mobile, tablet, etc. Switch back and forth as you choose

Project Management Professional Training Video


Want to know about Data Mining

Big data!!!

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Project Time Management 7 Processes

Properly defining and sequencing project activities allows a project manager to answer two basic scheduling questions – What activities are required to develop the end product? And how should the activities be sequenced for optimal results? The first step in developing a reliable project schedule is identifying project activities and their interrelationships which are planned as per plan schedule management (refer plan schedule management). As of now let’s concentrate on defining activities.

The activity definition processes will identify the deliverables at the lowest level in the work breakdown structure (WBS) which is called the work package. Project work packages are planned into smaller components called schedule activities to provide a basis for estimation, scheduling, executing and monitoring and controlling the project tasks. Implicit in the process is defining and planning the schedule activities such that the project objectivities will be met.

To keep it simple, this step requires you to define the tasks, milestones, and other activities needed to complete the project. Start with a basic definition of each task and fill in the details as the project gets fleshed out.


A Gantt chart is a simple and quick way to outline the entire project. Use the Gantt chart to add tasks and their estimated timeframes. Don’t worry about dates at this point, but rather focus on the time it will take to complete each individual task?


TOP 20 PMI-PMP sample practice exam questions

TOP 20 PMI-PMP sample practice exam questions You Shouldn't Ignore To Learn

As part of your learning we share this instant article to cover few practice questions even when you are casually browsing through your social media accounts.It is always a good thing to take the mock tests before you attend the main exam. In this case your main exam is PMP and you cannot take it easy. This needs experience, expertise in project management which you have implemented or experienced for the past 3-5 years.  Know your capabilities and the way you feel comfortable to learn the concepts of project management, then put that in practise.  Attend the 35 hours mandatory tutoring where you can meet other people and do the knowledge sharing. Don’t limit yourself to meet and prepare along with your best buddy. Learning from a group of PMP enthusiasts and peers helps you identify solutions to critical project managerial problems.

ways to learn. Make a habit of writing or taking notes at the time of training. This will help you memorise key points from all the concepts. The best approach for learning all the content (there’s a lot of it) depends on your learning style, as said earlier. Some people learn best by reading and absorbing information in their own time. You may even try taking notes and create flash cards. Taking notes in the training is an art and that is to create a mind map to put the key points at your fingertips as shown here PMP Mind Map

You may bookmark us and reach us later to have discussion with our experts. Below are the 20 questions with answer and explanation:

  1. Of the five project management process groups, which group is a common thread that spans the majority of these processes from start to finish?
  1. Executing
  2. Planning
  3. Controlling
  4. Initiating

Answer. c.

   2. The deliverables are produced, and the scope is being verified. What is the main objective of validating scope process?

  1. Project scope statement is prepared
  2. Deliverables are produced
  3. Deliverables are tested and checked whether scope is met or not
  4. Deliverables are accepted by the stakeholders

Answer: d.

Stakeholders formally accept the project scope and the deliverables. This is the main objective of validate scope process.

 3 .You are in the process of identifying the responsibilities of the different levels of management associated with projects. What distinguishing factors can you tell them are inherent to a portfolio manager?

         a.  Provides governance for a group of projects

            Selects projects for the organization

            Identifies a project’s return on investment

          b. Provides governance for a group of projects

            Provides advice to project managers on individual projects

            Selects projects for the organization

          c. Provides the finances required by the project

            Leads the project until it is formally authorized

            Identifies risks related to undertaking the project

         d. Provides the finances required by the project

            Communicates with all stakeholders

            Selects projects for the organization

Answer a.

Portfolio managers are responsible for high-level governance of the projects within their portfolios. They

lead the project selection process for the organization by identifying the value of the project to the

organization, and as such identifying the projected return on investment. They also have a mandate of

identifying potential risks associated with taking on the project.

  1. Sam is a project manager for a small construction company. His current project involves paving a 20 km highway. The cost of paving one kilometer of road is $25,000, and the entire project is estimated to take six weeks. Three weeks into the project, he has spent $38,000 and has paved 10 km of road. Based on this scenario, which statement is true?
  1. The project is under budget and behind schedule.
  2. The project is over budget and behind schedule.
  3. The project is under budget and ahead of schedule
  4. The project is over budget and ahead of schedule.

Answer a.

Calculate the schedule performance index (SPI) to determine if the project is ahead of or behind schedule. SPI is calculated by dividing the earned value (EV) by the planned value (PV). To determine if the project is under or above budget, we need to calculate the cost performance index (CPI). To calculate CPI, we need to divide the (EV) by the actual cost (AC). The AC is given in the scenario as $38,000. Review the following information on for this scenario. Since the calculated SPI is less than one, the project is behind schedule. Since the calculated CPI is greater than one, the project is under budget.

  1. It is now time to Plan Procurement’s process – which of the following is MOST representative of a list of tools and techniques utilized within the Plan Procurement’s process?
  1. Make-or-buy analysis, expert judgment, screening system
  2. Make-or-buy analysis, expert judgment, contract types
  3. Contract types, standard forms, screening system
  4. Expert judgment, procurement documents

Answer b.

Most commonly used tools and techniques within the Plan Procurements process of the make-or-buy analysis, expert judgment, and contract types. Each tool and technique can aid in the following decisions: which products or services will be acquired; if, how, and when these products or services will be acquired; and the quantity of these products or services. The Plan Procurements process identifies which products or services will be purchased or acquired and which will be taken care of by the project team.

  1. Which of the following term defines the work needed to complete a product, service, or result?
  1. Scope baseline
  2. Project scope
  3. Product scope
  4. Scope verification

Answer b

Scope Baseline is the approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison.  Project scope describes the project deliverable and the work that must be performed to create this product, service, or result for the stakeholders. This includes the work needed to fulfill any speci?ed features and functions outlined. Once the project scope is determined, the project scope statement can be created.

  1. Edward is forming a virtual project team that includes members from four different countries around the world. What is NOT an obstacle that he must overcome to build an effective team?
  1. Disparate tools and technologies
  2. Members wanting to work from home
  3. Different time zones
  4. Cultural differences

Answer b

Different time zones and Cultural differences must be considered while setting up a virtual team. Virtual teams share a common project goal, but share little time in a traditional face-to-face business environment. The virtual team concept is made possible with electronic communication, and one of the benefits of such teams is the ability of members to work from home.

  1. Jim has taken over a project from a colleague just after she completed assembling her project team. Before leaving, she indicated that several members of the team will need specialized training. To help guide Jim when selecting the appropriate training, what should Jim refer to?
  1. Project Management Body of Knowledge
  2. Responsibility Assignment Matrix
  3. Staffing Management Plan
  4. Work Breakdown Structure

Answer c.

The PMBOK® Guide identifies that subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice. A RACI chart is a useful tool to use when the team consists of internal and external resources in order to ensure clear divisions of roles and expectations. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables.The Staffing Management Plan establishes the timing and methods used to meet project human resource requirements. The Staffing Management Plan includes components covering staffing acquisition, timetable, release criteria, training needs, recognition and rewards, compliance, and safety.

  1. A project manager who is a certified PMP and currently working on a project to create and test a new piece of software for the client. The project is currently behind schedule. She estimated that it will take another month for her to complete the testing phase. Her boss asks to skip the last part of the testing phase and, if asked, tell the client that all aspects of testing were completed. What should she do in this situation?
  1. Inform the client that all testing aspects are completed
  2. She must tell her boss that she cannot refuse to skip the last part of the testing phase.
  3. Ask the project management team members for a second opinion.
  4. Complete two more weeks of testing.
  5. Skip the last part of the testing phase.

Answer b

Even if it means the project is completed behind schedule,it is important to complete all aspects of the project, as agreed upon by the customer. Tell your boss that you refuse to skip the last part of the testing phase.

  1. In which type of organization a project manager would have the MOST control?
  1. Weak matrix organization
  2. Balanced matrix organization
  3. Projectized organization
  4. Strong matrix organization

Answer c.

A project manager would have the most control in a projectized organization, because the project manager makes all of the decisions in this type of organization. Organizational units report directly to the project manager and most of the organization’s resources are designated for project work.

  1. Lisa is a project manager for a company called Earth Farm. She is currently trying to control costs for a project she is working on involving the company’s database. Which of the following BEST defines the value of completed work, based on the approved budget assigned to that work for a scheduled activity?
  1. CV
  2. EV
  3. SV
  4. FV

Answer b.

Cost Variance (CV): The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost. Schedule Variance (SV) is a measure of schedule performance expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value. Earned Value (EV) refers to the value of completed work, based on the approved budget assigned to that work for a scheduled activity or work breakdown structure item.

  1. You are executing a project. Which option is NOT representative of the inputs, tools, and techniques, or outputs of Direct and Manage Project Execution?
  1. Deliverables, Approved Change Requests, and PMIS
  2. PMIS, Project Management Plan, and Deliverables
  3. Project Management Plan Updates, Expert judgment, an Enterprise Environmental Factors
  4. Change Requests, Change Control Meetings, and PMIS

Answer d.

During the Direct and Manage Project Execution process, activities are performed to produce the planned results outlined in the Project Management Plan. This process uses several inputs and applies two tools and techniques to produce several outputs. Change Control Meetings is not representative of the inputs, tools and techniques, or outputs of the Direct and Manage Project Execution process.

  1. You are preparing communication management plan. Which statement is not true regarding the “Distribute Information process”?
  1. Is the execution of the communications management plan
  2. Takes place throughout the project life cycle
  3. Includes information gathering
  4. Does not include responding to unexpected requests

Answer d.

Distribute information is the execution of the Communications Management Plan. The main purpose of it is to gather and distribute project information to stakeholders throughout the life of the project in order to keep them updated. This process also must be flexible enough to respond to unplanned requests from stakeholders.

  1. A big IT company is creating a change control board to review all change requests for a project that are assigned. What is the MOST appropriate selection of members to include on the change control board?
  1. The project initiator or project sponsor
  2. The project manager
  3. The customer, project manager, project team members
  4. The customer

Answer c.

The change control board is used to review change requests and determine whether they should be approved or denied. The most appropriate selection in this scenario is to include the customer, project manager, and project team members on the change control board (COB). Part from the project management team, change control board generally consists of key stakeholders such as the project sponsor, customers, consultants, and other subject matter experts.

  1. A project manager is preparing lessons learned document. Which of the following is a false statement regarding the lessons learned process?
  1. Lessons learned meetings focus only on the technical development process
  2. Lessons learned provide information that could improve efficiency for future projects
  3. Lessons learned include updates to the risk management plan
  4. Lessons learned provide information that could improve effectiveness for future projects

Answer a.

Lessons Learned: Is the knowledge gained during a project which shows how project events were addressed or should be addressed in the future with the purpose of improving future performance. Lessons Learned Knowledge Base:  A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance.

The focus of a lessons learned meeting can vary. It can focus on many things, such as technical development, design strategies, future improvements, or process flaws found. Experience to provide information that could improve efficiency and effectiveness for future projects and project teams.

  1. Project work is started as outlined in the project schedule. A project manager is using Microsoft Project 2016 to see what the effects of changing the schedule are, based on certain situations. Which tool is being used in controlling the project schedule?
  1. What-lf Scenario Analysis
  2. Fast tracking
  3. Scheduling tool
  4. Resource leveling

Answer c.

A scheduling tool is being used to control the project schedule for ex. Microsoft Project 2016 where it has a feature that allows you to perform what-if scenario analysis.

  1. Tamara is a project manager for a small construction company. She is currently working on a project that involves the development of a number of apartments in a new subdivision. She is in the process of procuring the required materials for the project. As a buyer, which documents will she NOT be responsible for?
  1. Proposals
  2. Source selection criteria
  3. Procurement documents
  4. Procurement statements of work

Answer a.

Proposals are an input of the Conduct Procurements process. The majority of the work in this process is undertaken by the seller. Proposals are created by the seller, and they usually include any information that was requested in the procurement documents issued by the buyer.

  1. Susan has been asked to lead a virtual team whose members are dispersed across multiple continents. What is a MAJOR obstacle that must be overcome to build an effective team?
  1. Disparate tools and technologies
  2. Different time zones
  3. Local HR policies
  4. Cultural differences

Answer d.

When managing a global team, differences in culture pose the greatest challenge because attitudes towards authority, rank, and position vary greatly by geographic region. Just to name a few, these challenges may be tied to differences in language, religion, gender roles, business practices, and local customs. Cultural issues should be on the agenda early to increase team awareness of these differences and to allow team members to express their concerns.

  1. As a project manager for a major project, it is 30% complete after three months and it has a current cost of $275,000. The budget for the project is $550,000 and it is scheduled to last eight months. How is the project performing?
  1. The project is ahead of schedule and under budget
  2. The project is behind schedule and over budget.
  3. The project is ahead of schedule and over budget.
  4. The project is behind schedule and under budget.

Answer a.

Schedule Performance Index (SPI) determines whether the project is behind, on, or ahead of schedule.Cost Performance Index (CPI) determines whether the project is over, on, or under budget. If the CPI < 1, then the project is over budget. If the CPI > 1, then the project is under budget Since the CPI is greater than one, the project is currently under budget.Review the following calculation of the CPI for this. If the SPI <1, the project is behind schedule. If the SPI >1, the project is ahead of schedule. Since the SPI is greater than one, the project is currently ahead of schedule.Review the following calculation of the SPI for this.

  1. From the below-mentioned process, which one uses the Project Management Plan, approved change requests, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets as inputs?
  1. Develop Schedule
  2. Monitor and Control Project work
  3. Verify Scope
  4. Direct and Manage Project Execution

Answer d.

Develop Schedule: The process of analysing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.  Monitor and Control Project Work: The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.  The Direct and Manage Project Execution process enables the project manager and project team to perform the necessary actions to ensure the Project Management Plan is executed. It uses the Project Management Plan as its main source of information about how a project will be executed.

ExcelR Solutions : 

Hope you have gone through all the questions and our explanation has sufficed the given correct answer. If you have concern, want to raise a query or like to add something else, please feel free to comment and we would reply you at the earliest to clarify your query. Wish you good luck in preparation and success ahead for PMP Certification.


Upcoming PMP Training Dates from ExcelR Solutions

When you are in a track to choose your path, all you require to do is just select the best one for you.The PMI basically stands for the Project Management Institute. It is the manager or supervisor of a PMP or Project Management Professional certification. The PMP accreditation is the all-round renowned confirmation as well as the world’s top most accreditation for the project management. Numerous institutions currently apprehend that projects are their utmost pledge to the business line. In addition to this, the awareness and concentration for the project specialists develop each and every year.

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How To Extract Tweets Using RStudio In 10 Simple Steps

Step 1: Login with your Twitter login details
Step 2: Go to and click on create New App
Step 3: Compare the mandatory fields with Your 'Name'.'Description' and in 'website'( and 'call-back URL'as blank
Step 4: Check the option 'Yes,I agree' under Developer Agreement and click on 'your Twitter application'
Step 5: Click on the 'Key and Access tokens'section to find your consumer key and 'Consumer secret'key
Step 6: Click on the 'Create My access token'button and you can find your Access TOken key and Access Token Secret Keys
Step 7: Install all pakages shown in below image and run from lines 1 to 8 row
Step 8: Replace consumer key with your consumer key and consumer secret and run the code from lines 10 to 14 & also run lines 16 & 17
Step 09: In console, it will ask you to select option Yes or No, Press option 1 to proceed with authentication for Rdata.
Step 10: In console, it will ask you to select option Yes or No, Press option 1 to proceed with authentication for Rdata.
Run line 29 of the code by providing the Twitter account name of your area of interest in the single

quotes instead of ‘narendramodi’.

Line No 29 Tweetswill extract Narendramodi’s 1000 tweet. You can replace with any other person twitter profile name by changing in single quotes and “n” is value to extract no of tweets.

Step 1Login with your Twitter login details.

Step 2: Go to and click on Create New App

Step 3: complete the mandatory fields with your ‘Name’, ‘Description’ and in ‘Website’ ( and ‘call-back URL’ as blank 

Step 4: Check the option ‘Yes, I agree’ under Developer Agreement and Click on ‘your Twitter application’.

Step 5:Click on the Key and Access tokens’ section to find your Consumer key and Consumer Secret’ key

Step 6:Click on the Create My access token’ button and you can find your Access Token key and Access Token Secret keys

Step 7:Install all packages shown in below Image and run from lines 1 to 8 row

Step 8:Replace consumer Key with your Consumer key and consumer Secret and run the code from lines 10 to 14 & also run lines 16 & 17.


Step 09: In console, it will ask you to select option Yes or No, Press option 1 to proceed with authentication for Rdata.

Step 10: In console, it will ask you to select option Yes or No, Press option 1 to proceed with authentication for Rdata.

Run line 29 of the code by providing the Twitter account name of your area of interest in the single

quotes instead of ‘narendramodi’.

Line No 29 Tweetswill extract Narendramodi’s 1000 tweet. You can replace with any other person twitter profile name by changing in single quotes and “n” is value to extract no of tweets.

Now Run the code in lines  31 and 32 to create a CSV file of Modi’s tweets and to know the location of CVS file type “getwd()” which will show path of the CSV file as show in the below image.

Don’t forget to share this post,

Comment and get your doubts cleard!


R Studio Keyboard Short Cut Keys

Find the most essential keyboard shortcuts for R Studio in the below infographic.
Save your precious time with these must-know commands.
The below mentioned shortcuts hold good for both Windows and iOS operating systems.

R Studio Keyboard Short Cut Keys


Extracting Amazon Reviews Using R

Extracting Amazon Reviews Using R

Step 1: Install and Load R pavkages
Step 2: Search for an Amazon product
Step 3: Select iphone 6s product
Step 4: Click on Customer Reviews on the link Highlighted in Yellow in the Screendhot shown
Step 5: Soon after the page redirects to the reviews copy'URL', which has to be pasted later in the R code explained towards the end of this document
Step 6: Right click the mouse, go to 'View page source' Or "Ctrl+U" Copy any comment from Customers reviews and search in 'View page resource'
Step 7: Choose the starting word and ending word which are commomn for every review even in html coding



Sample Statistics and Population Parameter in Data Science

simple and Most Important Measures In Data Science

When we work on Population with Mean, Variance, Proportion, Standard Deviation are known as Population Parameter When we work sample with Mean, Variance, Proportion, Standard Deviation are known as Sample Statistic



Mean,Median,Mode in DATA SCIENCE

Measures of central tendency are also called as First Moment Business Decision

Mean are influenced by outliers

Mean, Median, Mode are called as Measures of central tendency


Errors in R

1.Could not find function "XYZ" when xyz isnt a function.

Check for typos, in particular () instead of [],eg,you put xyz(1,2) instead of xyz[1,2]

2.Could not find function "xyz" when xyz is a function.
 i.Check for types.
 ii. Is it a function you wrote yourself or is included in a script? if so, run that bit of the script agian and make sure it runs without an error.
iii. Have you loaded the package containing the function? Use?? xyz to see which package its in;
  use search()to see if the package is loaded.

3. No such file or directory when you try to read in a file with read, table,. csv or similar functions.
i.Check that you have got the file name right,including the extension (the last few letters after the dot), and its in "quotes".
ii. Do one of the following:
Use the full path to the file, eg,  "C:/users/me/workshop/ant.csv" Note that R uses forward slashes(/) in file names, not backslashes(/).
Change the working directory to the one with the file you are looking for:go to file>
Change dir... or do setwd(choose.dir()) and select the right folder.
put file.choose() in place of the file name, then browse to find the right file.

 4.There is no package called "XYZ" when you do libary (xyz)
i.Check the spelling for types and lower/upper case!
ii.Loook for the package in the list of packages installed: use packages>Load package ... from the main menu or do 
iii. If its not there, you need to install it. Most packages are on the CRAN repository; for those use install.packages ("XYZ") # with "quotes"

5.Error in file (con,"r"): cannot open the connection
In addition: Warning message:
In file (con,"r"):
Internetopen Url failed: "The server name or address could not be resolved"
Check the internet connection and run the code again.

6.Error in as data frame default (x[[i]], optional = TRUE):
Cannot coerce class "c("simple_ Sent_Token_Annotator", Annotator")" to a data.frame
For this error just detach caret package & then detach ggplot2
This is because ggplot2 is also there in NLP package

7.Library (xlsx)
Error Message:
Loading required package: rJava
Error: .onload failed in loadNamespace() for rJava, details:
call: fun(libname,pkgname)
error: JAVA_HOMEcannot be determined from the Registry 
Error:package rjava could not be loaded
fixing the Error?
Need to install 64 bit java
go to
choose Windows Offline 64 bit
Once this version of java installed the packages will be successfully installed and loaded into R.

Error: could not find function "view"
Need to Tyoe capital V in view

9.skewness (AT)
Error: could not find function "skewness"
 Need to install "Moments"
Install.packages ("moments")

10. kurtosis(AT)
Error: could not find function "kurtosis"
Need to install "Moments"
install.packages ("moments")

Error in summary(Groceries): object Groceries not found 
Need to write in 
Summary ("Groceries")


Creating Dummy Variables Using R

Below Is The Code For Creating Dummy Variables

data("iris")example <"setosa","versicolor","virginica"))
names(example) <-"species"
#For every unique value in the string coilumn, create a new 1/0 column
# This is what Factors do "under-the-hood" automatically when passed to function requiring numeric data
for (level in unique (examples$Species)){
example[paste ("dummy",level,sep= "_")]<-ifelse(example$species == level, 1,0}
Mat <-as.matrix(example)
irismerged <-merge(iris,Mat)


Skewness and Kurtosis in Data Science

  • Kurtosis measures peakedness of the distribution
  • Skewness is also called a THIRD MOMENT BUSINESS DECISION
  • Kurtosis is also called a FOURTH MOMENT BUSINESS DECISION

    Skewness measures asymmetry in the distribution


Box plot in Data Science

Box&whisker plot

1.Box plot is also called as Box&whiske 2.The data which falls between the upper and lower quartile are called as Inter Quartile Range



1.Understand the defined Business Objective

2.Research & explore on the Domain knowledge or consult Subject matter expert (SME)

3.Collect the metadata of the given data with the help of SME or explore various research avenues

4.Collect the data for the variables which are relevant for the project based on domain expertise

5.Data cleansing & wrangling to be performed to make data structured

Dummy variable creation

a.Create Dummy variable for categorical data in binary format(1 or 0) if exists of two levels in a factor
b.If more than two levels in a factor create dummy column with each level
Imputation for missing data
There are many types of imputation techniques which replaces N/A values
a.List wise deletion (Complete Case Analysis) Delete whole row if any N/A found
b.Pair wise deletion (Available Case Analysis)Delete the particular cell or value
c.Mean imputation-Replaces the N/A Value with Mean of the Variable
d.Mode imputation-Replaces the N/A value with Mode of the Variable
e.Hot deck Imputation-Replaces the similar value by checking each row
f.Regression Imputation-N/A is considered as an output and replace it by predicting the value
g.KNN Imputation-By Calculating the distance between each data point and replaced with the nearest neighbour


6.Find out the data types (Continuous, Discrete, Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio)

7.Find the Probability of the data
No. of interested events / Total no. of events

8.Find the Data to which probability distribution it belongs to

Probability distribution will always have Random Variable on X-axis & Probabilities associated with random variables on Y-axis
a.Continuous Probability Distribution
b.Discrete Probability distribution

9.Find whether the data is following normal distribution
b.Bell shaped curve
c.Mean = 0, area under the curve = 1

10.If data is not following normal distribution, then transform the data.

11.Various types of transformations:

a.Log transformation.
d.Square root
e.1/ square root
h.Cube root
i.1/ cube root
j.Boxcox transformation
k.Johnson transformation, And many more Transformations ….

12.If despite transformation data follow normal distribution, then perform analysis pertaining to non-normal distribution

13.Standard normal distribution (Z Distribution)
Mean = 0, Standard Deviation = 1

14.Measures of Central Tendency (or) 1st Moment Business Decision
Average of the particular variable (Xi/n)
Middle most number
Most repeated value

15.Measures of Dispersion (or) 2nd Moment Business Decision
Var(X) = E[(X-µ) ^2]
Distance from mean to each point, where units gets squared
b.Standard Deviation
Sqrt of Variance, where units get normal (sqrt(var))
c.Range: Max(Xi) – Min(Xi)

16.Measures of Skewness (or) 3rd Moment Business decision
a.Positive Skewed (or) Right skewed
b.Negative Skewed (or) Left Skewed

17.Measures of Kurtosis (or) 4th Moment Business Decision
a.Positive Kurtosis (or) Thinner peak
b.Negative Kurtosis (or) Wider Peak

18.Graphical Representation
Represents the Normal Distribution of data, Skewness
Represents the outliers, median, Q1, Q3.
c.Bar plot
Represents the Data
d.Stem and leaf plot
A Stem and Leaf Plot is a special table where each data value is split into a “stem” (the first digit or digits) and a “leaf” (usually the last digit)
E.g.: – 32 -> Stem ‘3’ Leaf ‘2’
e.Dot plot
Represents the normal distribution and skewness




2.Confidence Interval for Proportion

3.Central Limit Theorem

4.Sample Size

5.Standard Error

6.Standard Normal distribution(Z standadization)

7.Normal Q-Q plot


9.Poission Distribution



DATA SCIENCE-Data Mining -Unsupervised Learning

Data Mining

Is also known as “Machine Learning”
Data Mining is divided into two subcategories
1. Unsupervised Learning
2. Supervised Learning

Unsupervised Technique:
If Output(Y) is not Known, then we will go for Unsupervised Technique.
A Few of Unsupervised Data Mining Techniques are:
• Association Rules
• Recommendation system
• Clustering
• Dimension Reduction Techniques
• Network Analysis

Association Rules: –
Association Rules are also known as Market Basket Analysis & Affinity Analysis

“IF” part = Antecedent = A
“THEN” part = Consequent = C

Apriori Algorithm:

? Set minimum support criteria
? Generate list of one-item sets that meet the support criterion
? Use list of one-item sets to generate list of two-item sets that meet support criterion
? Use list of two-item sets to generate list of three-item sets that meet support criterion
? Continue up through k-item sets

a. Support: 
? Consider only combinations that occur with higher frequency in the database
? Support is the criterion based on frequency


Percentage / Number of transactions in which IF/Antecedent & THEN / Consequent appear in the data

# transactions in which A & C appear together / # Total no. of transactions

b. Confidence
Formula: Percentage of If/Antecedent transactions that also have the Then/Consequent item set


P (Consequent | Antecedent) = P (C & A) / P(A)

# transactions in which A & C appear together / # transactions with A

Confidence – Weakness
If antecedent and consequent have:
High Support => High / Biased Confidence
c. Lift Ratio:

Confidence / Benchmark confidence

Benchmark assumes independence between antecedent & consequent:

Benchmark confidence:

P(C|A) = P (C & A) / P(A) = P(C) X P(A) /P(A) = P(C)

# transactions with consequent item sets / # transactions in database

Interpreting Lift:
Lift > 1 indicates a rule that is useful in finding consequent item sets


Data Science-Data Mining-Clustering

Clustering Techniques


Cluster Analysis("data segmentation") is an exploratory method for identifying homogenous groups ("clusters") of records

  • Similar records should belong to the same cluster
  • Dissimilar records should belong to different clusters
  • In Clustering there are two types of Clusters they are:
    • Hierarchical Clustering
    • Non-Hierarchical Clustering

Hierarchical Clustering Alogorithm:

  • Hierarchical methods-agglomeratives: Begin with n clusters; sequentially merge similar clusters until 1 cluster is left. Useful when goal is to arrange the clusters into a natural hierarchy. Requires specifying distance measure


Secure your career with the best Tableau online training in Excelr

Life is all about choosing the right trail, and one of the most significant chunks of life is to select the best career options. One should not go with the flow in the lifecycle, determining the finest profession to be a successful individual in life is the central part and to lead you in a proper track Excelr is the only organization to assist.

Overview of the organization

Excelr is one of the foremost teaching centers across the world. It offers numerous courses with high technology. Having the best equipment and tools they assist their students in every presentation. They ensure that their trainees can get the best information about the teaching. They also organize walk-in-interview for the beginners related to the course.

They try to help their students by having convened a meeting with the professionals. Thus, trainees can gather much information about the courses. In fact, they will have some confidence by discussing this topic with the expertise.

What is Tableau online training?

This is an online teaching provides by this particularly dignified company. This organization provides in-depth accepting of online certification teaching for administrators and developers. This particular study is different than other teachings over there. Tableau offers thirty hours of indicators on experiences. It ensures that this training definitely makes their students an expert to get any job related to the drill across the country.

Advantages of doing the course

One can get many benefits by doing this course. Having the best experts in their company, they provide the finest teaching to their trainee. This help them a lot to understand what the exercise is about and which kind of job they can get after completing the drill. This company organizes walk-in interview along with meetings and discussion with the professionals and that increases the confidence of the trainees.

In this training, you can get much practical work which can help you to increase the knowledge. This cas4 study will help you to understand the concepts about the real world. Their professionals teach them how to deal with the practical projects and assignments. You can quickly solve any problems using Tableau when you will work on this project in the real world.

  • There are lots of advantages you can get with this teaching:
  • This has so much analytics ability.
  • This is primarily designed for the users that the clients can make any changes if required.
  • Amongst all other institutes Excelr- Tableau online training can provide you tremendous information.
  • They have their wide-ranging certifying cost of various customers for different uses.

Their dream is to be renowned worldwide. They want to circulate their training in all over the world. Having the best technology and tools they provide the best solution to their clients. All these services are reliable and efficient.

If people are interested towards this job, they can only relate to it. Day by day, they are increasing their service value towards their customers. This particular training is highly commendable. In fact, they are getting much positive review from their customers.


Regression Techniques-Linear Regression

Part-1 Linear Regression

1.Linear Regression This is regression method where the output is continous and the inputs are either continous or discrete. The generic R function of Linear Regression is Im(Y~X) where Y is output and X represents the inputs



Logistic Regression Part-2

Regression Techniques Part 2
Logistic Regression This technique is used when the output is discrete and inputs are either continuous or discrete. The result of the regression model provides the probability associated with the either of the output.




The resultant model is a polynomial regression equation if the best fit line is a curve rather than a straight line

The R code for polynomial regression is a variant of the Linear regression Where the inputs are the polynomial function. For eg, if there is only one input X ten the function could be like this.

Im (y~X+l(x^2) +l(X^3))# this is for the third order polynomial

Stepwise Regression

Stepwise Regression technique is processs where the choice of the input variable (inclusion or deletion of variables) by an automated process taking into considerthe t-statistic value of coefficients

The R code for the same is detailed below

start <-lm(Y~1)# model with no inputs end <-lm(Y~.)# model using all the inputs

#for forward selection step(start, scope=list(lower=start, upper=end),direction="forward")

#for backward elimination step(end, direction="backward") #for backward elimination the model with no inputs will not be needed

#for stepwise regression step(start,scope=list(upper=end), direction=both) The choice of the model (inputs) will be based on the least AIC value. Generally the last option in the output.

Ridge Regression

Ridge regression is variant of the linear regression used to circumvent to some extent the problem of multicollinearity problem amongst the inputs. The ridge regression adds a small factor of bias to the input variables in order to undertone the multicollinearity. The output of the ridge regression will create multiple set of coefficients for differnt 'tuning parameter'

lm.ridge(y~.,lambda =Seq(a,b,c))#a=start value; b=end value;c=increment step.lambda is ridge constant

Lasso Regression

Lasso stands of least absolute shrinkage & Selection operator. This technique performs both input selection and regularization for improved prediction accuracy. Lasso can be used for linear modelling and various generalised linear models.

The function for lasso in R is lars()

Elastic Net Regression

Elastic Net regression is also Lasso & Ridge regression as it tries to addres the inherent weaknesses or limitation of the Lasso Regression and Ridge regression.,

The function in r for Elastic Net regression is glmnet()


Advanced Regression Part 2

Poisson Regression:

This technique is used when the output is discrete and inputs are either continuous or discrete. Poission regression will be used when the dependent variable is a count data Poisson regression is used when variance is equal to mean of dependent variable

Negative Binomial regression

poission regression will be used when the dependent variable is a count data

a. Overdispersion: Over-Dispersion Negative Binomial regression is used when Variance is greater than the mean of dependent variable 

b.Under dispersion: Over Dispersion Negative Binomial regression is used when Variance is greater than the mean of the dependent variable


Must Know Packages For a Successful Data Scientist


Packages For Data Manipulation
Must know Packages for a successful Data Scientist
Packages for Data Manipulation

XLSX: To read and write excel files
Foreign: To read and write SAS,SPSS files
XML: To read and write XML File
JSON: To read and write Json files
Moments: To Find Skewness and Kurtosis
Httr: A set of useful tools for working with http connections
ggplot2: For visualixation purpose
lubridate: To work with date-spans, time-spans, date-time dd/mm/yy to yy/mm/dd
dplyr: Consistent and fast tool for working on R and modify the Data

Packages for Imputation

HotDeckimputation: To resolve missing Data

Yalmpute: Performs nearest neighbour-based imputation using one or more alternative approaches to process multivariate data

Mvnmle: Finds the maximum likelihood estimate of the mean vector and variance-covariance matrix for multivariate normal data with missing values.

Mice: Multiple Imputation using Fully Conditional Specification (FCS) implemented by the MICE algorithm

Lattice: A powerful, high-level data visualization system, emphasis on multivariate data. Sufficient for typical graphics needs, flexible to handle non-standard requirements.

Packages for Kmeans

Plyr: break a big problem down into pieces, operate on each piece and then put all the pieces back together.

Animation: Provides functions for animations in probability theory, mathematical, multivariate, nonparametric, computational statistics, sampling survey, linear models, time series, np data mining and machine learning.


Manual calculation of Confidence interval and Prediction interval

Packages for SVM/Neural

Maptpx: Posterior maximization for topic models(LDA) in text analysis.

Packages for SVM/Neural:

Kernlab: Kernel-based machine learning methods for classification, regression, clustering, novelty detection, quantile regression and dimensionality reduction.'kernlab; includes Support Vector Machines, Spectral Clustering, Kernel PCA, Gaussian Processes and QP solver

Neuralnet: Training of neural networks using backpropagation, resilient backpropagation, allows flexible settings through custom-choice of error and activation function.

Packages for Twitter:

twitter:It provides an interface to the Twitter web API.

base64enc: It provides tools for handling base64 encoding. This is more flexible than the orphaned base64 package.

Httpuv: It provides protocol support for handling HTTP and WebSocket requests directly from R.It is a building block for other packages.

Manual calculationManual calculation of Confidence interval Manual calculationManual calculation of Confidence interval Manual calculationManual calculation of Confidence interval Manual calculationManual calculation of Confidence interval


Dimension Reduction Techniques


Dimension Reduction Techniques Main Intrusion of Dimension Techniques are to reduce the size & Improve the computation Speed

Dimension Reduction Techniques are of two types:

They are

PCA: Principal Components Analysis

SVD: Singular vector decomposition

Application of Dimension Reduction:

Computation Performance Enhanced

Image Compression

Face Recognition Principal Components Analysis:


By Using PCA We can reduce the number of Columns

We can identify the relation between columns

Visualize the multidimensional data in 2D

Less Number of Columns Will Capture maximum information

Dimension Reduction TechniquesDimension Reduction Techniques


Artificial Intelligence – “Smarter Than Humanly Possible”

We are in the early stages of a global intelligence revolution. Artificial Intelligence (AI) already permeates many aspects of our lives. All over the world, AI systems filter email spam, recommend things for people to buy, provide legal advice on everything. Portraying AI as adding to a change of society “happening ten times speedier and at 300 times the scale” of the Industrial Revolution. Characterizing AI is troublesome, not slightest on the grounds that ‘knowledge’ itself is hard to characterize.

AI empowers a rush of advancement across numerous divisions of the global economy. It enables organizations to utilize assets all the more proficiently and empowers altogether new plans of action to be created, regularly worked around AI’s powerful ability to interrogate large data sets. Many businesses in low and middle-income countries will benefit from these AI capabilities, converting into more noteworthy open doors for little business visionaries to grow new businesses.

There are a lot of examples where AI is being utilized to make strides conveyance of open administrations and open products in low and center salary nations, running from pilot undertakings to bigger scale take off. AI appears to be especially fit for rearranging exchanges on government sites.

There are three reasons many individuals are befuddled about the term AI:

1) We connect AI with motion pictures. Star Wars. Eliminator. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Indeed, even the Jetsons. What’s more, those are fiction, just like the robot characters. So it makes AI sound somewhat anecdotal to us.

2) AI is a wide point. It ranges from your telephone’s number cruncher to self-driving autos to something later on that may change the world drastically. AI alludes to these things, which is befuddling.

3) We utilize AI all the time in our day to day lives, yet we frequently don’t understand its AI. AI regularly seems like a legendary future forecast in excess of a reality. In the meantime, it makes it seem like a pop idea from the past that never happened as expected

To begin with, quit considering robots. A robot is a compartment for AI, infrequently emulating the human shape, here and there not—but rather the AI itself is the PC inside the robot. AI is the cerebrum, and the robot is its body—on the off chance that it even has a body.  For instance, the product and information behind Siri is AI, the lady’s voice we hear is an embodiment of that AI, and there’s no robot required by any stretch of the imagination.

There are various composes or types of AI since AI is a wise idea, the basic classes we have to consider depend on an AI’s caliber. There are three noteworthy AI Calibre classifications:

  • Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI): Sometimes alluded to as Weak AI, Artificial Narrow Intelligence is AI that represents considerable authority in one zone. AI can beat the world chess champion in chess, however, that is the main thing it does. Request that it make sense of a superior method to store information on a hard drive, and it’ll take a gander at you vacantly.

  • Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): Sometimes referred to as Strong AI or Human-Level AI. Artificial General Intelligence alludes to a PC that is as keen as a human in all cases—a machine that can play out any learned errand that an individual can. Making AGI is a considerably harder assignment than making ANI, and we’re yet to do it. The major insight is “an extremely broad mental capacity that, in addition to other things, includes the capacity to reason, design, take care of issues, think conceptually, appreciate complex thoughts, learn rapidly, and gain as a matter of fact.” AGI would have the capacity to do those things as effortlessly as possible.

  • Artificial Superintelligence (ASI): ASI is “an insightfulness that is considerably more intelligent than the best human brains in essentially every field, including logical innovativeness, general shrewdness, and social abilities.” Artificial Superintelligence ranges from a PC that is only somewhat quicker witted than a human to one that is trillions of times more brilliant—no matter how you look at it. ASI is the reason the theme of AI is such a zesty meatball and why the words “everlasting status” and “eradication” will both show up in these posts numerous circumstances.

As of now, people have vanquished the least gauge of AI—ANI—from numerous points of view, and it’s all over the place. The AI Revolution is the road from ANI, through AGI, to ASI—a road we could possibly survive yet that, in any case, will change everything.


Tableau Prep

Tableau Prep is a new ETL tool that allows for a fast and visual overview of the data and to prepare, cleanse and blend the data easily. Before you start your analysis in Tableau Desktop, this ETL tool allows to prepare and cleanse data to make sure it is ready for use. Data needs some preparation before starting with the analysis and visualizations. Also, we need to combine the data with additional data sources, Tableau prep will help in doing the same.

We can do data cleansing, joining, and filtering through Tableau Desktop. But sometimes this creates a bit messy with the different changes which we made. With several calculated fields just for data cleansing purposes that makes our data pane a bit messy or different filters that we should apply that aren’t as clear for the rest of the analysts. As we join lots of data sources together which slows down our workbooks.

Tableau Prep performs all the tasks which are already present in Tableau Desktop but in a much easier and cleaner way. Tableau Prep makes things very easy to replicate and run those steps again in the future and share it with others.

Tableau Prep works in a step by step basis where

  • First, we have to connect to the data set or data sets we want to prepare.
  • Use operations to filter, rename, split, join, summarize, create calculated fields, etc.
  • Check the actions we have applied so far and
  • Output the data to a Tableau Extract or publish it to Tableau Server or Tableau Online.
  • Finally, the flow which appears looks like in Maestro.

In Tableau Prep, tracking and reviewing the tasks is easy when you do changes to them. Also, the data preparation process that is being applied to different datasets is easy to understand until we create the final output.

Tableau Prep is quite comfortable for Tableau users. The start screen of Tableau prep is almost similar to Tableau Desktop main screen. The layout of Tableau prep holds the connections to the left, recent work to the middle of the screen. Instead of showing the dashboards, Tableau Prep shows the flows and training, resources on the right side. You will feel Tableau Prep as quite familiar with it.

There is quite a good number of data sources we can connect thru Tableau Prep. You can work with Excel, flat files, Redshift, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, Teradata, Splunk and also Tableau Extracts.  We can perform tasks and data preparation on TDEs and hyper extracts with Tableau Prep.


  • Amazing data visualization
  • Excellent user interface
  • Easy Integration with data from many sources
  • Excellent UI  and easy adaptability for mobile devices and
  • Active user forums and Customer Service
  • Tableau is comparatively of a low-cost solution
  • Easy to upgrade to the latest releases of software.
  • Low-cost solution to implement and upgrade


  • Companies need to have strong technical skills to build the initial structure.
  • Not all statistical features are provided.
  • Not sufficient capability in Financial Reporting
  • Still, need IT expertise in writing a query to pull the dataset from SQL
  • Change management issues – no previous version restore
  • Risky security – To set up row-level security, it requires that the user have a database user account which leads hackers to exploit.


Tableau Prep is an ETL tool for a fast and visual overview of the data to prepare, cleanse and blend the data easily. This tool allows to prepare and cleanse data to make sure it is ready for use.


Waterfall Vs Agile

There are myriad project management methodologies to choose from like Waterfall, PRINCE2, Scrum DSDM Atern, Extreme Programming, etc. Nevertheless, these frameworks can be broadly divided into traditional and Agile project management. Neither of these technologies is a panacea nor a silver bullet. Both the methodologies have pros and cons. But if we have to choose the first among the equals pertaining to IT project management - it's Agile. The reasons are simple, in the majority of the IT projects, the requirements(Scope) will not be clear in the first place. Even if the customer's scope is well defined, the requirements evolve and tend to change during the course of the project. This is evident to every IT Software Developer and every project Manager. This is the primary reason why the majority of the IT project in today's scenario is more dealt in an Agile way and agile is becoming more prominent in the IT space. 

Following are the factors that should be considered to choose the right methodology

1.Waterfall(Traditional project Management)                                                                          1.Agile Methodology
2.When the requirements and space are very clear at the start of the project                           2. When the requirements and scope is uncertain and tends to change
3.Simple and well-defined projects                                                                                          3.Complex, large and undefined projects
4.Projects with minimal or no customer involvement                                                             4. Projects where customer involvement
5.When the scope if fixed                                                                                                         5. Projects with evolving scope

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